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Full text of "San Francisco International Airport ... environmental sustainability report"

SFO 



SAN FRANCISCO PUBLIC LIBRARY 

3 1223 08079 1057 

San Francisco International Airport 



San Francisco International Airport 
2007 Environmental Sustainability Report 




2007 



TahlpnfCnntpnts 



1 . SFO's Commitment to Sustainability 



^^^^^^ 

- 2. SFO Profile. 





3. Climate Cfiange/Global Warming 17 

4. Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy 23 

5. Air Quality Enhancement 29 

6. Noise Abatement 39 

7. Water Conservation and Water Quality Enhancement 45 

8. Natural Resources Management 51 

9. Solid Waste Reduction and Recycling 55 

10. Hazardous Material and Waste Management and Remediation 61 

1 1 . Green Buildings and Facilities 67 

A Appendix: SFO By the Numbers A-2 



Cover Photos: 

1. SFO's fully automated AirTrain departing from the International 
Terminal. Ai^rTrain, primarily powered by hydroelectricity, signifi- 
cantly reduced pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 
at the Airport. * 

2. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fueling station. The majority 
of on-road alternative fuel vehicles at SFO operate on CNG, 
improving Airport air quality. 



3. SFO uses a herd of goats to graze upland vegetated areas near a 
critical w/etland habitat, thereby eliminating the use of power 
mowers and minimizing the risk of harm to native endangered 
species. 

4. In March 2007, SFO became the first Airport in North America 
to test aircraft towing by Virgin Atlantic as a means to reduce 
CO-, emissions from aircraft taxiing to the runway. If only 30% 
of departing flights are towed to the runway, 16,000 tons of 
CO^ emissions could potentially be eliminated each year. 



.(yne2007 ! Prepared for the San Francisco International Airport Commission by Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. (www.vhb.com) 



DOCUMENTS DEPT. 



NOV 1 9 2007 



Message from Mayor Gavin Newsom 



SAN FRANCISCO 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 






San Francisco Public Library 

Government Information Center 
San Francisco Public Library 
100 Larkin Street. 5th Floor 
San Francisco, C A 94102 

REFERENCE BOOK 

Not to be taken from the Library 



The people of San Francisco are firmly supportive of conserving the 
Earth's resources so that future generations of Americans and other 
nles of the world may enjoy a prosperous life in a just, clean, and 
lie environment. The people and the government of the City 
County of San Francisco have been pioneers in developing and 
ementing programs and practices that would lead to less intensive 
»f scarce resources and would make urban living and the quality of 
irban environment sustainable and enjoyable. To this end all City 
irtments have been tasked to develop and implement meaningful 
inability programs. The goal of these programs consists of 
ource use, elimination of discarded and hazardous waste by 
, enhancement of economic opportunity for all citizens of 
of cultural and social programs that contribute to the betterment 



port IS a pivotal enterprise in our City government and an engine 
1 Francisco Bay Area. Our Airport has been rated the best in the 
and efficient service to air travelers. The Airport strives to reduce 
:y cling, contribute to our cultural enjoyment, and promote social 



.mentation of SFO's ongoing sustainability efforts and provides 
monitoring these programs as we move forward. 



4 




1 DR. CARLTON B. GOODLETT PLACE, ROOM 200 SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 94102 

(415) 554-6141 
RECYCLED PAPER 



Office of the Mayor 
san francisco 




GAVIN NEWSOM 



DOCUMENTS DEPT. 



Message from Mayor Gavin Newsom 



NOV 1 9 Z007 

SAN FRANCISCO 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 



The people of San Francisco are firmly supportive of conserving the 
Earth's resources so that future generations of Americans and othei 
peoples of the world may enjoy a prosperous life in a just, clean, and 
livable environment. The people and the government of the City 
and County of San Francisco have been pioneers in developing and 
implementing programs and practices that would lead to less intensive 
use of scarce resources and would make urban living and the quality of 
the urban environment sustainable and enjoyable. To this end all City 
Departments have been tasked to develop and implement meaningful 
sustainability programs. The goal of these programs consists of 
demonstrable reductions in resource use, elimination of discarded and hazardous waste by 
recycling all valuable materials, enhancement of economic opportunity for all citizens of 
San Francisco, and promotion of cultural and social programs that contribute to the betterment 
of life in our City. 




San Francisco International Airport is a pivotal enterprise in our City government and an engine 
of economic growth for the San Francisco Bay Area. Our Airport has been rated the best in the 
country in providing a pleasant and efficient service to air travelers. The Airport strives to reduce 
resource use, promote waste recycling, contribute to our cultural enjoyment, and promote social 
diversity in its work force. 

This report is a systematic documentation of SFO's ongoing sustainability efforts and provides 
a blueprint for enhancing and monitoring these programs as we move forward. 




1 DR. CARLTON B. GOODLETT PLACE, ROOM 200 SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 94102 

(415) 554-6141 
RECYCLED PAPER 




SuStainability John L. Martin Airport Director 

Committee JacksonWong Chief Operating Officer 

Ivar Satero Deputy Airport Director, Design and Construction 

Ernie Eavis Deputy Airport Director, Facilities Department 

Kandace Bender Deputy Airport Director, Public Relations 

Sam Mehta Manager, Environmental Services 



SFO's Commitment to Sustainability 



A message from Airport Commission President Larry Mazzola 
and Airport Director John L. Martin 

San Francisco International Airport's (SFO) mission is to be the airport of choice for passengers, 
for airlines, and for the industry. The Airport strives daily to provide a safe, secure, customer- 
friendly, and economically-sound facility. 

The Airport views environmental sustainability efforts as an integral part of this mission and is 
committed to reducing its contribution to global warming, to improving air and water quality, 
to reducing noise impacts, and to preserving natural resources. 

SFO has met many milestones in environmental achievements and in resource conservation in 
the past several years, including: 

► Mitigation of noise impact in the surrounding communities through sound insulation of 
homes in the Bay Area and by working continuously with airlines on flight schedules and 
aircraft types. 

► Conversion of traditional light fixtures to energy efficient fixtures resulting in 3.5 million kWh 
of electrical energy savings per year. 

► Installation of 2,000 square feet of solar panels with an additional 50,000 square feet of 
panels currently under design and construction. 

► Construction of two compressed natural gas dispensing facilities that enable refueling of clean 
natural gas powered vehicles operated by the Airport, tenants, and various transportation 
service providers. 

► Conversion of all Airport operated shuttle buses to biodiesel use, saving 35,000 gallons of 
diesel fuel per year. 

► Construction of a $37 million state-of-the-art sanitary wastewater treatment facility, 
enabling the Airport to consistently meet or exceed regulatory requirements for discharge of 
treated wastewater into San Francisco Bay and plans to upgrade the industrial wastewater 
treatment plant. 

► Construction of storm water runoff detention ponds with a combined capacity of 8.6 million 
gallons for storage and treatment of "first-flush" runoff, thereby enhancing the water quality 
of the Bay. 

► Implementation of various recycling initiatives, which have resulted in the diversion of 
more than 89% of solid waste generated at the Airport, including construction and demolition 
debris, from landfills for the last three years. 

We believe that these and other achievements are just the beginning of our sustainability efforts. 
The Airport staff is now engaged in examining all facets of our operations. Using best manage- 
ment practices, SFO will develop, monitor, and regularly review specific and measurahie targets 
for activities and programs that help achieve and exceed regulatory coin()liam.c rcqiiirciucnts 
and improve environmental performance. This report is a first step in laying out our polic\' and 
the means to implement it. 




John L. Martin 

Airport Director 



SFO's Commitment to Sustainability 




CAM CD A M/* I cr<"\ iKnrrokiA 



iff 







ADMINISTRATION 


BUSINESS AND FINANCE 


PLANNING 


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 




Function Sustainability 
Element 


Function Sustainability 
Element 


Function Sustainability 
Element 


Function Sustainability 
Element 




Procurement 
Reprographics 


Parl<ing 
Management 

Life Cycle Costs (f^ ^ ^ 
Management 


Facilities # © C 
Planning ^ ^ 

®o© 

Environmental /Si^ 
Impact 

Assessment |^ 


Design ^ © C 

Construction 



Information 
Technology 



Natural 

Resources 

Management 



©c® 



Environmental 
Services 



Safety and 
Health 



AirTrain 



oo 

©c 
e® 
o© 

©e 



Medical 
Services 



Transportation 

Engineering 

Services 



©C 



w ww I 



SustainabHity at SFO by Department 



SFO integrates environmental sustainability efforts into its operations on a daily basis and through all of its Airport Departments. The 
Commission encourages all Airport employees to search for viable and economical means and methods to minimize the impact of Airport 
operations on the environment. Airport Departments are committed to identifying measures that would lead to substantive environmental 
benefits. This table shows the various sustainability initiatives in which Airport Departments are involved. 



1 

I 




OPERATIONS AND SECURITY 


Function 


Sustainability 
Element 


Aircraft Apron Operations 




Ground Service 
Equipment Management 




Spill Response 





Function 



FACILITIES 



COMMUNICATIONS/MARKETING 



Sustainability Function 



Architectural/Engineering 



Facilities Maintenance 
& Operation 



Water Supply/Quality 
Control 



Sustainability 



Element 


Element 




Noise Abatement 


m 


®o® 






® ©c 
®o® 


Public and Community 
Outreach 


®© 
#c 
®o 


©c 


Education/Training 





e 
c® 
®oo 



Electricity/Gas 
Resource Use 



Wastewater Treatment/ 
Stormwater Management 




Solid Waste Management 



®o 



Sustainability Elements 






Climate Change/Global Warming 


® 


Natural Resources Management 




Energy Conservation/Renewable Energy 


® 


Solid Waste Reduction and Recycling 


c 


Air Quality Enliancement 


o 


Hazardous Material and Waste Management and Remediation 


# 


Noise Abatement 


o 


Green Buildings and Facilities 


c 


Water Conservation/Water Quality Enhancement 







2. SFO Profile 



^ .tji^liHi- ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

San Francisco International Airport (SFO) is the premier airport serving Northern 
California, located on San Francisco Bay 14 miles south of the City. SFO covers 
approximately 5,200 acres with about 2,700 acres developed for Airport use and 
approximately 2,500 acres remaining as natural tidelands. This chapter provides a 
description of the land uses, activity levels, awards received, and environmental 
issues at SFO. 




SFO's Mission 




San Francisco 
International Airport. 



SFO's mission is to be recognized as tlie world leader 
in setting the standard for: 

► Safety and security, 

► Customer service and satisfaction, 

► Community relations, 

► Environmental commitment, 

► Quality of facilities, and 

► Financial vitality. 



Land Use 

Land uses at SFO are broadly categorized as either 
airside or landside facilities. Airside facilities consist 
of approximately 1,700 acres of runways, taxiways, 
and ramp systems. Landside facilities consist of 
approximately 1,000 acres and are divided into 



1 2 functional classes: terminal complex, non-terminal 
airline support, airline maintenance, general 
aviation, air freight, airport support, commercial, 
administration/office, transportation, miscellaneous 
facilities, parking facilities, and roads. 

Airside Land Uses 

SFO currently maintains four intersecting runways: 
two parallel east-west runways and two parallel 
north-south runways. All four runways are paved 
and 200 feet wide. The east-west Runway 28R/10L 
is 1 1,870 feet long; its parallel Runway 28171 OR is 
10,600 feet long. The north-south Runway lR/19Lis 
8,901 feet long; its parallel Runway 1Lyi9R is 7.100 
feet long. The majority of aircraft landings occur on 
Runways 28R/28L and the majoriiv of tho t>ikeoffs 
occur from Runways 1 R/1 L. 

Landside Land Uses 

Prior to 2001, the existing passenger terminals 
covered approximately 6 million square feet. In 
200 1 , the Airport completed the construction of a 
Master Plan that added more than 5 million square 



7 



Profile of SFO 



Operations, Passengers, and Air Cargo Tonnage at SFO 



500,000 



400,000 



200,000 




1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 



"^^^ Operations 




1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 

^1^1 Passengers 



,000 



5 600, 

e 
& 

1 400, 



200, 



,000 



,000 



,000 




1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 

nal Area Forecast for SFO. www.apo.data.faa.gov/main/taf.asp; 

'-'.'mmission * 



feet of new landside improvements including a new 
International Terminal, two new boarding areas, a 
new Airport people-mover (AirTrain), a new multi- 
modal connection for Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) 
and AirTrain, various other office/administrative 
space, airline maintenance support, and air cargo, as 
well as parking, roadway, and other transportation- 
related improvements. 

Other Airport facilities support public service 
functions and airport operations. These facilities 
include airport administration, airport engineering, 
building and field maintenance, crash/fire/rescue 
facilities, and utilities, as well as aircraft fueling, 
airport police, commercial enterprises, and rental 
car facilities. 

Activity Levels 

Aircraft Operations, Passenger Activity 
Levels, and Cargo Shipment 

In 1 997, aircraft operations (aircraft takeoffs or 
landings) peaked at 436,700 annual operations and 
was stable for the following four years, then it dipped 
sharply after the events of September 1 1, 200TThe 
number of passengers flying to or from SFO was 
39.3 million in 2000, dropping to 28.0 million in 2003 
and gradually increasing to 31 .8 million passengers 
in 2005. 

As fuel costs, competition for passengers, and 
environmental impacts have increased, aircraft 
operations have become more efficient. Aircraft load 
factors are the highest ever on record in the U.S., with 
domestic flights operating at 75% of capacity and 
international flights operating at 82% of capacity 

Cargo shipment at SFO peaked at 853,000 metric 
tons in 2000, dropping to 563,000 metric tons in 
2004, but rebounding to 591 ,000 metric tons in 2005. 



8 



History 



Dedicated on May 7, 1927, the Mills Field Municipal Airport of San Francisco was built by the City and County of San Francisco as a dirt 
runway for pioneering aircraft. In the ensuing 80 years, SFO became one of the world's premier international airports handling more than 
31 million passengers and more than 591,000 metric tons of air cargo in 2005. 




On July 16, 1927 looking north towards San ^an Francisco's first airport administration building followed a simple and 

Bruno Mountain from the ruige of Hangar no. 1, .^^^^^^ ^j^^ ^/^^ ^^^^^^ 

San Francisco 's first municipal airport terminal sat y considered the first "control tower. " 

alone on the barren landscape between a dirt road 
to the west and freshly graded airstrip to the east. 




Tlie airfield passenger loading area and hangar The August 27, 1954. dedication of the new San Francisco Intcrnalional 

in 1939. Airport Terminal Building began a three-day cclcbralion. Forty-three airfylaiics 

were e.xhibited for the opening, including the military Boeing B-47n Slratojet, 

a prelude to the Jet Age. 



:2 



Profile of SFO 



Ongoing & Future CO Emissions Reduction initiatives 



25,000 



20,000 



15,000 



.£ 10,000 




Note; The following CO, 
emission reductions are not 
refleaed in the chart: 

• Existing Programs 

bullets recycling, BART and 
HOVs, biodiesel use, PC-Air 
and 400 Hz power, paper 
use reduction, and water 
use reduction. 

• Future Opportunities 

fleet conversion to CNG/ 
Hydrogen, bus conversions 
to CNG, and aircraft towing. 



Future Opportunities 



Future Implementation of Energy 
Audit Recommendations 

New Solar Panels on Terminal 3 



Existing Programs 

AirTrain (HOV, hydroelectric power) 

Indoor Lighting Energy Savings Program 

Solar Panels on Jason Yuen 
Architectural/Engineering Building 

Conversion of Vehicles to CNG 

Recycling* 



Calculated using EPA WAste Reduction Model (WARM): 
www.epa.gov/cllmatechange/vvycd/wa5te/calculators/Warm_home.html 



Estimated Historical Annual Air Pollutant Emissions from Stationary Sources 



TOG 
ROG 
NOx 
PM,„ 



a 20 



Toxic Organic Gases 
Reactive Organic Gases 
Nitrogen Oxides 
Particulate Matter less than 
10 microns in diameter, which 
are the greatest concern to 
public health 

Source:,California Air 
Resources Board 



SFO Environmental Indicators 

Global Warming/Climate Change 

The City and County of San Francisco, which 
includes the Airport, has successfully certified its 
greenhouse gas (GHG) ennissions inventory with the 
California Climate Action Registry, becoming the 
first city in the United States to earn the Registry's 
distinction of Climate Action Leader™. Currently, a 
number of GHG emissions reduction programs are 
underway at SFO (see Chapter 3, Climate Change/ 
Global Warming). As shown in the graph to the left, 
the Airport expects to further reduce its GHG emissions 
by up to 20,000 tons per year in the near future. 



Air Quality 

SFO has an extensive air quality enhancement 
program addressing aircraft emissions and ground 
service equipment (GSE), cars, and buses driving to 
and from the Airport, and fuel and energy use at 
the Airport. SFO's success in improving air quality is 
demonstrated by significant steps taken to reduce 
emissions from these mobile sources. Emissions 
from stationary sources (such as emergency power 
generators) have remained relatively stable from 
2003 to 2005, while NO,, emissions have declined. 



TOG 



ROG 



NOx 



PMio 



2003 



2004 



2005 



10 



Historical Electricity Consumption 



350,000,000 



>. 300,000,000 



Note: Includes tenant 
consumption 

* 12 month fiscal year 
from July 1,2001 to 
June 30, 2002 



Energy Conservation / Renewable Energy 

Most of the electricity suppled to SFO is derived 
from hydroelectric power generation. The graph at 
left depicts historical SFO electricity consumption 
since 1990. The sharp rise in consumption in 2001- 
2002 can be attributed to the opening of the new 
International Terminal and related facilities. To counter 
this recent increase in electricity consumption, SFO 
conducted an energy audit to improve energy 
efficiency at the Airport. 



250,000,000 



1990 1995 2001-2002* 2005 



Solid Waste Recycling Rates (2004-2006) 



89% 




95% 



2004 



Asphalt 



2005 



Other C&D 



2006 



Municipal Solid Waste 



Total Airport Water Use and Use by Passengers 



600 




■0 



2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 
Annual Water Consumption 



Solid Waste Recycling 

SFO operates the largest recycling program in San 
Mateo County The Airport is currently recycling a 
minimum of 50% of all collected municipal solid waste. 
In the past three years, SFO has recycled and diverted 
from landfills a minimum of 89% of the combined solid 
waste stream, including construction and demolition 
wastes (C&D). SFO's success in solid waste recycling is 
demonstrated in the adjacent graphic. The decrease 
in the recycling rate in 2005 can be accounted for 
by limited construction activities during that year. 

Water Conservation and Water Quality 
Enhancement 

The water conservation progrann launched by SFO 
in the 1990s featured automatic shutoff fixtures in 
nearly every public restroom. The continued success 
of this program is demonstrated by water use 
reductions per passenger. Wastewater generated at 
the Airport is treated on-site at the state-of-the-art 
sanitary wastewater treatment plant and the industrial 
wastewater treatment plant. Discharges from these 
plants in 2006 met or exceeded the quality standards 
established in the National Pollutant Discharge Elim- 
ination System Permits issued for the two plants by 
the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Water Quality 
Control Board. 



11 



Profile of SFO 



SFO Key Environmental Metrics (2005) 



' Only terminal area, a common metric to all airports, is reported. 





0^6 
OS 

o 

"S 0.4 

re 
zi 
a- 

^ 0.3 

OJ 
Q. 

E 0.2 

0.1 
0.0 




S" 10 



,L 



Water Use 



Landfilled Waste 



Terminal Natural Gas Use* 



Terminal Electricity Use* 



Noise Abatement 

Through SFO's efforts, the number of people living 
in areas that experience significant aircraft noise 
dropped from 35,1 00 in 1 976 to 3,298 at the 
beginning of 2000, a 91% decrease. This area, as 
defined by the 65 decibel (dB) Community Noise 
Equivalent Level (CNEL), had also been significantly 
reduced from 2.2 square miles in 1 986 to less than 
one square mile in 1999. The noise metric used by 
the Airport and State of California, CNEL, traditionally 
weights both evening and late-night noise more 
heavily to account for the added disturbance caused 
by such noise. At present, through offers of sound 
insulation and avigation easements, SFO has been 
able to eliminate incompatible land uses within the 
noise impact area. Incompatible land uses include 
schools, hospitals, and day care centers, which could 
be adversely affected by excessive noise, as defined 
inTitle 21 of the California Code of Regwiations. 
Through its noise insulation program, SFO became 
the first major airport in California to eliminate all 
incompatible land uses within the State 65 CNEL 
noise contour and to operate without a variance. 



Hazardous Materials and Waste Management 
and Remediation 

Between 1 992 and 2006, the Airport and its tenants 
carried out an extensive program of site investigation, 
characterization, and remediation of contaminated 
soil and groundwater to protect human health and 
safety, and to prevent the degradation of environ- 
mental resources in and around the Airport. The 
cost of this program was more than $55 million. 
SFO closely monitors any release of fuels or other 
contaminants, treats contaminated groundwater 
prior to disposal, and disposes of contaminated soil 
in permitted landfills. 

Natural Resources Management 

Over the years, as mitigation for its Master Plan 
construction projects, SFO has mitigated 32 acres of 
on-Airportfill by upgrading 558 acres of wetlands and 
tidal marshes (including the creation of 84 acres of 
new wetland) throughout the Bay Area, committing 
more than $20 million to this effort. Currently, the 
Airport is investigating the development of additional 
wildlife habitat at various locations in the Bay Area. 



12 




SFO was honored mth the 2004 Eagle AimrS. " 
from the International Air Transport Association in 
recognition of outstanding peiforniance in providing 
ualiie for money, continuous improvement, and a 
high level of airline customer satisfaction. 




"TKe managemen t of San Francisco Airport 
is a model of the spirit of partnership that our 
industry needs. " 

Giovanni Bisiqnaiii, 



i 



lATA Director General and CEO 



Airport Excellence Awards 




Over the years SFO has received a number of awards reflecting excellence 
in service, superior facilities, and diligence in environmental achievements. 
A sampling of these awards is shown below. 

► Best Airport in North America Award, CityBlock.com, 2006 

► Best Airport in United States Award, Executive Travel Magazine, 2005 

► Certified Forest Products Council, Certified Sustainable Product Use Award, 2003 

► Honored for Clean Vehicle Policy by Natural Gas Coalition at 9th Annual 
Achievement Awards, October 2001 

► Saluted by Secretary ofTransportation Norman Y. Mineta for Leadership in Usage 
of Alternative Fuel Vehicles, May 2001 

► "Clean Air Hero" Award from the American Lung Association was received by 
SFO Senior Transportation Planner Roger Hooson for work to improve air quality, 
April 2001 

► Governor's Office of Environment, Excellence in Environmental Achievement 
Award, 1 998 

► San Mateo County Economic Development Association, Environmental Action 
Award of Excellence, September 1 998 

► Airport Council International, Environmental Excellence Award, 1 998 



13 



2 



Profile of SFO 



Green Buildings and Facilities 

The Airport has taken major steps in implementing 
resource-efficient building principles. All new 
buildings are required to have low-flow restroom 
fixtures and automatic-shutoff valves to conserve 
water. Lighting improvements include replacement 
of existing fixtures with lamps that produce more 
light with less energy. All technical specifications for 
new and remodeled buildings include requirements 
for recycling construction waste and demolition debris. 
SFO has an extensive array of sustainable design 
features in its award-winning International Terminal. 



Tlie International Terminal Bnitding features a variety 
of green building design principles, including abundant 
natural light. 





14 



3. Climate Change/Global Warming 




All City Departments, including the Airport, must play a significant role in reducing 
the City's contributions to greenhouse gas (GHG) generation. Because carbon diox- 
ide (CO^) is the most prominent GHG in the atmosphere, it is commonly used as the 
metric for measuring GHG emissions (other GHG emissions are typically converted 
to "equivalent CO^'O.This chapter describes current and planned activities to reduce 
GHG emissions at the Airport. 



Aircraft being towed a 
portion of the way to its 
departure runway as part of 
Virgin Atlantic's successful 
aircraft towing trial carried 
out in late March, 2007. 



Policy 

Climate change and global warming are issues of 
significant concern to SFO management. In keeping 
with the City's pledge, the Airport is committed to 
reducing GHG emissions. 

Goals 

The following goals are established by SFO to address 
global warming concerns: 

► Minimize the use of fossil fuels for meeting the 
energy needs of the Airport by using cleaner 
sources of energy and by developing new solar 
and possibly wind power sources. 

► To the extent practicable, procure manufactured 
products made with a relatively lower contribution 
to global warming. 

► Actively participate in meeting the City's goal 
of reducing GHG emissions to 20% below 1 990 
levels by 201 2, more aggressively than the state- 
mandated 2020 target. 



Federal/State/Local Mandates 

Climate Action Plan 

The City and County of San Francisco, the San 
Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC), 
the International Council for Local Environmental 
Initiatives (ICLEI), and Local Governments for 
Sustainability jointly developed the San Francisco 
Climate Action Plan in 2004. The plan establishes 
the goal of reducing GHG emissions to 20% below 
1990 emission levels by 2012; projects the potential 
impact of global warming on the region; and outlines 
specific actions in key areas of transportation, solid 
waste management, energy efficiency, and renewable 
energy use. The plan also presents steps to aid the 
City in reducing its emissions. 

Global Warming Solutions Act 

On September 27, 2006, Governor Schwarzenegger 
signed Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32), the Global Warming 
Solutions Act, which requires reducing California's GHG 
emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, This legislation 
represents the first enforceable state-wide program 
in the U.S. to cap all GHG emissions from major 



17 



Climate Change/Global Warming 



Estimated SFO CO^ Emissions in 1990 and 2005 



30,000 



25,0 



20,000 



15,000 



10,000 



5,000 







25,942 



17,474 





SFO 2012 Goal: 

20% below 
1990ievels 



Source: 2005 information based 
on data collected for the City 
and County of San Francisco 
California Climate Aaion 
Registry certification. 1990 
data is from the baseline 
inventory conducted for the 
SF Climate Action Plan. 

Note: Data contained here are 
estimates. Differences in 
reporting for 1990 data and 
2005 data may affea results. 



1990 



2005 



HH Electricity^ Natural Gas^ 

See table notes at end of chapter. 



Vehldefuel^ 



Impact of Ongoing & Future CO Emissions Reduction Initiatives 



Note: The following CO. 

25,000 emission reductions are not 

reflected in the chart: 

20 QQQ • Existing Programs: 

"""" bullets recycling, BART and 

HOVs, biodiesel use, PC -Air 

^ 15 000 and 400 Mz power, paper 

use reduction, and water 
use reduction. 

• Future Opportunities: 
fleet conversion to CTJG/ 
Hydrogen, bus conversions 
to CNG, and aircraft towing. 



•i 10,000 



o 

5,C 




Existing Programs Future Opportunities 



Airlraln (HOV, hydroelectric power) Future Implementation of Energy 

Audit Recommendations 
Indoor lighting Energy Savings Program • 
I^B New Solar Panels on Terminal 3 

Solar Panels on Jason Yuen 
Architectural/Engineering Building 

• 

Conversion of Vehides to CNG 
Recyding* , 

* Calculated using EPA WAste Reduction Model (WARM): 

vvww.epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/waste/calculators/Warm_home.html 



18 



industries and impose penalties for failure to comply 
with this goal. It requires the California Air Resources 
Board (ARB) to establish a program for statewide GHG 
emissions reporting and monitoring, and to enforce 
compliance with this program. AB 32 also requires 
ARB to develop regulations and market mechanisms 
to reach GHG emissions goals. Mandatory caps will be 
imposed in 201 2 for significant sources and other 
sources will be gradually regulated thereafter to 
meet the 2020 goals. 

Where Are We Now? 

Airport operations generate various types of GHGs 
directly from the use of fossil fuel products, such as 
diesel fuel, gasoline, and natural gas, and indirectly 
from the consumption of electricity at the Airport. 

The estimated reduction in CO^ emissions from 
ongoing and future SFO programs are shown in the 
adjacent graph. 

What Have We Accomplished? 

California Climate Action Registry 

The City and County of San Francisco, including the 
Airport, has successfully certified its GHG emissions 
inventory with the California Climate Action Registry, 
becoming the first city in the United States to earn the 
Registry's distinction of Climate Action Leader™. San 
Francisco is now publicly and voluntarily reporting its 
GHG emissions under this rigorous registry program. 
Measuring GHG emissions is a key step in determining 
how to prioritize climate change initiatives. 

The California Climate Action Registry is a non-profit 
public/private partnership that serves as a voluntary 
GHG registry to protect, encourage, and promote 
early actions to reduce GHG emissions. SFO, a City 
agency, is one of over 100 major companies, cities, 
government agencies, and non-governmental 



organizations to measure and publicly report their 
GHG emissions through the Registry. Organizations 
that are willing to meet the accounting standards and 
third-party certification requirements of the Registry 
demonstrate their serious intent to address climate 
change. The Registry has been widely recognized as 
the gold standard for public reporting of GHGs 
(www.cl i matereg istry.org) . 

Zero Emissions 2020 Plan 

SFO is participating in the City's Zero Emissions 2020 
Plan, which commits the City to developing a clean 
air plan for public transit. In coordination with San 
Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI), "Zero Emissions 
2020" focuses on the purchase of cleaner transit buses, 
including hybrid diesel-electric buses. 

AirTrain 

In 2003, SFO inaugurated service on AirTrain, an auto- 
mated people mover that links the Airport terminals, 
parking garages, and rental car center. Use of AirTrain, 
powered primarily by hydroelectricity, dramatically re- 
duced COj and other air pollutant emissions at SFO by 
eliminating 200,000 shuttle bus trips from the terminal 
loop annually, preventing the release of approximately 
565 tons of COj into the atmosphere each year.^ 

Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) 

As described in Chapter 5, Air Quality Enhancement, 

completion of the BART extension to SFO in 2003 has 
resulted in significant reductions in vehicle travel to and 
from SFO by arriving and departing passengers. BART 
ridership was 21 5,000 passengers per month in 2005, and 
assuming an average automobile road trip of 25 miles 
per passenger, the BART extension to SFO avoided 
approximately 64.5 million miles of vehicle travel in the 
San Francisco Bay Area, resulting in an estimated 
reduction of 28,947 tons of CO^ emissions in 2005.^ 



Comparing CO^ Emissions 

Every person's daily activities - from cooling one's house to 
driving to the supermarket - result in CO, emissions that 
can be calculated. The following graph places the Airport 
COj emissions in context: 




3,000-mile Standard Conventional Typical Airport 

Flight Refrigerator Oven Midsize Car (per 

(per (per year) (per year) (driven 12,000 passenger) 

passenger) miles per year) 



Sources: Mileage and fuel-efficiency statistics compiled by the 
Environmental Proteaion Agency; U.S. Department ol Energy. 
2001 Residential Consumption Survey; Lawrence Berkeley 
National Laboratory; Conniff, R (2005) Counting Carbons, 
Discover Magazine, Vol. 26, No.8 

"Equivalent CO,"(eCO,) is a unit that allows emissions of 
different GHGs to be added together. For example, one 
ton of methane (a more potent GHG than COp is equivalent 

to 21 tons of CO,. 

Source: Climate Protection Campaign, accessed 03/13/07, 
www.climateprotectioncampaign.oig 



19 



3 



Climate Change/Global Warming 



Virgin Atlantic Aircraft Towing Trial 

In March 2007, Virgin Atlantic, 5F0, Boeing, and 
FAA jointly conducted the first aircraft towing trial 
in North America. In this trial, an aircraft was towed 
fronn its gate closer to the runway, reducing the 
time that the engines of the aircraft were running 
on the taxiway. The goal of the test was to gather 
data on the feasibility of the aircraft towing program. 
Virgin Atlantic is preparing the report of the test, but 
preliminary calculations showed that 595 lbs of jet 
fuel were saved and 1,709 lbs of CO, emissions were 
prevented without causing delays or congestion. 
This program has the potential to dramatically reduce 
COj emissions from aircraft taxiing: if only 30% of 
departing flights use this protocol, 1 6,000 tons of 
COj emissions could potentially be eliminated each 
year. The Airport will conduct further study on this 
promising program. 



Other Initiatives 

SFO has joined the Sustainable Silicon Valley (SSV) 
organization, which is a multi-stakeholder collaborative 
initiative with the aim of producing significant 
environmental improvement and resource conservation 
in Silicon Valley. (http://www.sustainablesilicon 
valley.org). 

SFO has committed to a variety of other initiatives 
to reduce its GHG emissions through energy use 
reduction, increased use of renewable energy, 
general air emission reduction strategies, and the 
incorporation of green building principles in SFO 
building and facility designs. More information on 
these programs, including specifics on GHG emissions 
reduction, can be found in the following sections: 

► Chapter 4, Energy Conservation and 
Renewable Energy, 



► Chapter 5, Air Quality Enhancement, and 

► Chapter 1 1 , Green Buildings and Facilities. 



1 Assumes a shuttle bus trip of 3 miles with a fuel efficiency of 1 miles per gallon and a CO^ conversion factor of 8.55 kg/gallon of fuel 
(California Climate Action Registry [June, 2006] General Report Protocol, Version 2.1). AirTrain uses 5.4 MWh of primarily hydroelearicity 
each year, emitting only 0.2 tons of CO^. 

2 Assumes an average fuel efficiency for a light-duty vehide at 21.0 mpg and a CO^ conversion faaor of 8.55 kg/gallon of fuel. This 
• calculation does not include CO^ emissions generated from the 1 .5-mile BART extension to the Airport. 

• 

3 Electricity is supplied by Hetch Hetchy Water and Power system (HHWP) and is predominately generated by hydropower. The emission 
faaor for HHWP in 2005 was 38. 1 4 tons of CO/GWh and the same factor was applied to 1 990 electricity data in order to facilitate compari- 
son. Airport Commission-specific 1990 electricity usage was extrapolated from total airport commission and tenant electridty usage in 
2005 by assuming the ratio of Airport Commission to Tenant electricity usage was the same in 1990 as in 2005. 

4 For comparison purposes, natural gas, gasoline and diesel CO^ emission factors from the California Climate Action Registry were applied 
te the 1990 data (these factors vary slightly from those used in the SF Climate Action Plan Inventory). 



20 



^'"^'^ Registry ''"'^^ With the 

Writing 

^'^iSsion, . ^"^^"^"^ youths. 

^^otocoi V. found > ' '^^'^^ed 





21 



4. Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy 




Courtesy of : Katherine Ou Tiel/Sf PUC 



Energy conservation and the use of renewable energy yield multiple environmental 
benefits including slowing climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) 
generation and improving air quality. SFO maximizes these benefits through 
procurement of energy from hydroelectric sources, provision of clean fuel infrastructure 
at the Airport, and use of alternative sources of power for facilities and equipment, as 
described in this chapter. 



Solar Panels Atop 
the SFO Jason Yuen 
Architectural/ 
Engineering Building 

Use of this solar- 
generated energy resulted 
in the reduction of 8.6 
tons of equivalent CO^ 
emissions in 2005.^ 



Policy 

SFO shall reduce energy use to the maximum 
extent practicable and seek to utilize clean and 
renewable energy sources. 

Goals 

► Reduce overall power use by maximizing 
energy efficiency. 

► Enhance the use of energy supplies based on 
renewable, environmentally sound resources to 
the maximum extent practicable. 

► IVlinimize GHG and ozone-depleting emissions 
associated with energy use at the Airport. 

Federal/State/Local Mandates 

Assembly Bill (AB) 1007 

AB 1 007 requires the California Energy Commission 
to prepare a state plan no later than June 30, 2007, 
to increase the use of alternative fuels in California 
(Alternative Fuels Plan). 



Resource Efficient Building Ordinance (REB) 

The City's REB mandates that energy-efficient 
fluorescent lights, ballasts, and exit signs must be used 
at the time of equipment installation or replacement. 
In addition, automatic timers or light sensors must be 
used with all new and replacement exterior lighting. 
See Chapter 11, Green Buildings and Facilities, for 
additional information on this ordinance. 

Where Are We Now? 

SFO obtains electricity from the San Francisco 
Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) and natural 
gas through the California Department of General 
Services, Natural Gas Division and Pacific Gas and 
Electric Company (PG&E). Most of the electricity 
supplied to SFO is derived from hydroelectric power 
generation. The sources of energy for vehicles and 
equipment include electricity, gasoline, compressed 
natural gas (CNG), propane, and biodiesel. 



23 



Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy 



Compressed Natural Gas 




CNG is used as a substitute for gasoline or diesel fuel. It is made by compressing 
methane gas (CH^) extracted from natural gas. In light duty applications, 
air exhaust emissions from CNG vehicles are much lower than those from 
gasoline-powered vehicles. Smog-producing gases, such as CO and NOx are 
reduced by more than 90% and 60%, respectively, and CO^, a greenhouse gas, 
is reduced by 30 to 40%.' 

SFO has built two CNG fueling stations that are available for use by airport and 
non-airport patrons. The two fueling stations feature 1 5 fast fill hoses supplying 
95,000 gasoline equivalent gallons of CNG per month to Airport and public 
users including commercial vans, hotel courtesy shuttles, taxicabs, and on- and 
off-Airport parking shuttles. To date, 350 diesei and gasoline-powered vehicles 
have been replaced with CNG models resulting in savings of Tl 5 million gallons 
of gasoline and diesel fuel per year. In 2006, gross CO^ emissions reduction 
associated with the CNG facility totaled 1 ,460 tons. 



"fCNG] is great for 
the enuiroimient; great 
for air quality. It is so 
important right now. . . 
With gasoline resources 
being depleted, [CNG] 
is very important. " 
—Abdi Mohammed, 
City Cab driver 




2005 Airport Commission Energy Consumption 


Electricity 


13.5 million kWh/month 


Natural Gas 


225 thousand therms/month 


Gasoline 


14,900 gallons/month 


Diesel 


5,050 gallons/month 


Biodiesel 


1,208 gallons/month 


CNG 


95,000 gasoline gallons equivalent/ 
month (Includes SFO and other users) 


In addition to Airport energy consumption, 65 million gallons per- month 
of jet fuel were delivered to aircraft in 2005. 



5 Alternative Fuels Cata Center Natural Gas Benefits, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 

U.S. Department of Energy. (10/13/04) Accessed 03/13/2007 at www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel/ 
gas_ber»efits.html. Last updated 10/13/2004. 



What Have We Accomplished? 

SFO is actively implementing energy conservation 
programs in conjunction with the SFPUC and the 
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In 2006, SFO 
saved 5.36 million kWh as a result of energy efficiency 
projects. Examples of energy conservation programs 
are described below. 

Solar Energy Program 

The Airport has installed 2,000 square feet of solar 
panels on the roof of the Jason Yuen Architectural/ 
Engineering Building, with a 20 kW capacity, 
generating 22,300 kWh annually The power gener- 
ated by the solar panels is fed into the Airport's 
power grid, resulting in a reduction of 8.6 tons of 
equivalent CO, emissions each year.* In conjunction 
with the SFPUC, installation of 50,000 square feet of 
solar panels has begun on the roof of Terminal 3 to 
further augment solar power generation at the Airport. 
Upon completion, this project is estimated to 
produce 560 MWh of electricity per year and reduce 
equivalent CO emissions by 21 5 tons per year.* 



24 



Indoor Lighting Energy Saving Program 

Over the past several years, SFO has implemented 
an indoor lighting improvement program in which 
incandescent light bulbs have been replaced by 
energy efficient fluorescent bulbs resulting in an 
annual saving of 3.5 million kWh of electrical energy, or 
a reduction of 1,344 tons of equivalent CO^ emissions 
in 2006. Future program efforts are expected to 
result in additional savings of 0.4 million kWh per 
year or a reduction of 1 54 tons of equivalent CO^ 
emissions per year.* 




Energy Saving Fluorescent Light in use in Garage G. 



Electric Vehicle 
Charging at the 
Airport 

As part of the ILEAV 
program, SFO installed 
30 electric vehicle fast 
chargers and deployed 
54 electric GSE. 



Electric Charge Infrastructure and Low 
Emission Vehicles 

The Inherently Low Emission Airport Vehicle (ILEAV) 
Pilot Program was authorized in April 2000 as part of 
the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform 
Act for the 21st Century (AIR-21).The ILEAV program 
provided participating airports an opportunity to 
evaluate various types of mobile and stationary low- 
emission technologies and to assess the actual 
performance of these technologies in the airport 
environment. 

SFO was one of 1 airports selected by the FAA for an 
ILEAV grant in 2001 and received a $2 million award to 
implement low-emission vehicles and infrastructure 




at the Airport. Working closely with Airport tenants, 

this pilot project resulted in; 

► Deployment of four natural gas-powered remote 

parking facility shuttle buses, 

► Deployment of 30 electric vehicle fast chargers, 

► Deployment of 54 electric aircraft ground service 
equipment (GSE) including vehicles, and 

► Retrofit of 83 gasoline-powered GSE vehicles 

to propane. 

Renewable Energy Sources 

Electricity for both the Airport (including AirTrain) and 
tenant facilities is supplied by the Hetch Hetchy Water 
and Power system (HHWP), which is a conglomerate 
of dams, hydroelectric plants, reservoirs, aqueducts, 
pipelines, and transmission lines operated by the 
SFPUC. Water flows by gravity through 1 50 miles of 
pipelines, and tunnels from the crest of the Sierras to 
San Francisco. As the water flows, HHWP puts it to 
work turning the turbines in four hydroelectric power 
stations and generating approximately 1,6 billion kWh 
of renewable energy each year Hundreds of miles 
of transmission and distribution lines transmit the 
electricity from the power stations in the mountains 
to the San Francisco Bay Area. The Airport consumes 
1 3.5 million kWh per month predominantly from 
this source. When compared to CO^ emissions from 



Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy 



HI Benefits of Using Confipact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs) 




► Efficient: CFLs are four times more efficient and last up to 1 times longer than incandescent light bulbs. A 22-watt CFL produces 

about the same light output as a 1 00-watt incandescent light bulb. CFLs use 50 to 80% less energy than incandescent light bulbs. 

► Less Expensive: Although costing more initially , CFLs cost less in the long run because they use 1/3 the electricity and last up to 

1 times as long as incandescent light bulbs. Due to their longevity, CFLs do not have to be changed as freguently (an advantage in 
hard-to-reach places) and serve to reduce labor costs. 

► Reduces Air and Water Pollution: Replacing a single incandescent bulb with a CFL will keep a half-ton of CO, out of the atmo- 
sphere over the life of the bulb. If everyone in the U.S. used energy-efficient lighting, 90 average size power plants could be retired. 
Saving electricity reduces CO^ emissions, sulfur oxide, and high-level nuclear waste. 

► High-Quality Light: Newer CFLs give a warm, inviting light instead of the "cool white" light of older fluorescent lights. They use rare 
earth phosphors for excellent color and warmth. New electronically-ballasted CFLs do not flicker or hum. 

► Versatile: CFLs can be applied nearly anywhere that incandescent lights are used. Energy-efficient CFLs can be used in recessed 
fixtures, table lamps, track lighting, ceiling fixtures, and porch lights. 

Source: Energy Efficient Lighting (n,d.) Retrieved March 14, 2007 at vvww.eartheasy.eom/live_energyeffJighting.htm#1c 



a plant using fossil fuels, such as from the Western 
Systems Coordination Council (WSCC) , this represents 
a reduction of 56,050 tons of CO^ emissions per year.* 

Energy Audit 

In February 2007, SFO completed a preliminary 
Energy Audit in cooperation with the SFPUCThe 
effort was part of SFPUC's Clean Energy Clean Air 
Program to reduce operating costs and improve 
energy efficiency at the Airport. Implementing 
recommendations from this audit could result in 
savings of 37 million kWh of electricity per year and 



897,000 therms of natural gas per year, yielding a 
reduction in CO^ emissions of 1 9,500 tons per year. 
This would represent 53% of San Francisco's municipal 
Climate Action Plan CO, reduction goal achieved by 
energy efficiency . These environmental benefits 
would be eguivalent to planting 1 6,250 acres of 
forest or taking 3,1 00 cars off the road.' Other 
benefits to be derived from implementing the audit 
recommendations include improving the reliability 
of lighting and air conditioning equipment, reducing 
maintenance costs, and improving air quality. 



6 Assumes an emissions conversion factor of 3?4 tons equivalent CO/GWh. This is based on the WSCC annual average for 2006. 
This coefficient is used by ICLEI for California and by the San Francisco Climate Aaion Plan. This is being used for reporting the overall 
greenhouse gas emissions /eduction effect of energy efficiency and renewable projects in San Francisco (municipal and community) 
and will be used for all other reporting. This coefficient will change as the state resource mix changes and will be updated annually. 

* 

7 City and County of San Francisco Public Utilities Commission Power Enterprise (2007) Energy Efficiency Project Status Report, 
Preliminary Energy Audit Results. 



Hetcli Hetchy Water and 

26 ' Power system dam. 



5. Air Quality Enhancement 




SFO has implemented a comprehensive air quality enhancement program, addressing 
air quality impacts from aircraft emissions and associated ground service equipment, 
cars and buses driving in and around the Airport, and fuel and energy use at the Air- 
port. As air emissions are closely linked to ozone and greenhouse gas generation, SFO's 
air quality enhancement initiatives not only benefit the health of the local commu- 
nity but also help to reduce global warming. The air quality benefits of transportation 
system improvements are described in this chapter. 



CNG Dispensing 
Station 

SFO has the largest 
publicly accessible CNG 
refueling complex in 
northern California. 



Policy 

SFO shall continue to encourage the use of public 
transit, and, to the maximunn extent practicable, 
require the use of increasingly efficient vehicles and 
engines, and the use of clean fuels. 

Goals 

► Use alternative clean fuels such as compressed 
natural gas (CNG), propane, biodiesel, and 
electricity for vehicles and equipment. 

► Retrofit existing diesel-powered vehicles and 
equipment to reduce emissions. 

► Reinforce SFO's 2000 Clean Vehicle Policy 
that requires 1 00% clean vehicle use by 201 2 
where practicable. 

► Develop staged intermediate air quality 
enhancement goals for Airport tenants and 
commercial entities serving the Airport. 



► Minimize air emissions by increasing the use 
of clean energy sources, developing additional 
solar energy supplies, and evaluating the possible 
use of wind power. 

Federal/State/Local Mandates 

The emission sources at the Airport are regulated 
by federal, state, or regional agencies depending on 
the type of source. 

California Air Resources Board 

Established in 1967, the California Air Resources 
Board (ARB) regulates pollutant emissions to the 
atmosphere, conducts research into the causes of 
and solutions to air pollution, and systematically 
addresses the serious problems caused by motor 
vehicles, which are the major cause of air pollution 
in the state. The ARB is a department of the 
California Environmental Protection Agency and 
regulates all emission sources at the Airport with 
the exception of aircraft engines. The U.S. EPA 
regulates pollutant emissions from aircraft engines. 



29 



Air Quality Enhancement 



BART Extension 




"BART was very helpful. Really easy to 
use and really efficient to get downtown. 
I always look for the most economical 
means of traveling from airports. " 
— BART passengers traveling to catch their 
flight after a vacation in San Francisco. 



Completion of the BART extension to SFO in 2003 has resulted in significant 
reductions in vehicle travel to and fronn SFO. BART ridership was 21 5,000 passengers 
per month in 2005. Assuming an average automobile road trip of 25 miles per 
passenger, the BART extension to SFO resulted in an estimated reduction of 64.5 
million miles of vehicle travel in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2005. The air 
emission reductions that resulted from reduced vehicle travel are shown below. 

2005 Gross Air Emission Reductions from BART Extension to SFO 




CO 

NOx 

ROG 

PM,. 



Carbon Monoxide 
Nitrogen Oxides 
Reactive Organic Gases 
Particulate Matter less than 
10 microns in diameter, which 
are the greatest concern to 
public health 

CO and CO, are formed by 
different fuel combustion dynamics 
and are not related: CO is a 
function of engine combustion 
efficiency whereas CO^ is related to 
the amount of fuel consumed. 



NOx 



ROG 



PMio 



Bay Area Air Quality Management District 

In 1 992, the Bay Area Air Quality Management 
District (BAAQMD) adopted Regulation 1 3 that 
mandates that large employers implement 
programs to increase average vehicle occupancy for 
commute trips to reduce traffic congestion, improve 
air quality, and reduce energy consumption. 

In 1 996, the California State Legislature enacted a 
law prohibiting air districts and local agencies from 
requiring employers to implement employee trip 
reduction programs. This legislation superseded 
Regulation 13; however, SFO'sTrip Reduction Rule is 
retained voluntarily because the Airport Commission 
and staff are committed to implementation of SFO's 
Transit-First Policy Moreover, the Trip Reduction Rule 
program remains as a key environmental mitigation 
measure for SFO's terminal expansion program. 

Clean Air Vehicle Policy 

SFO's Clean Air Vehicle Policy, adopted in 2000, was 
not mandated by federal or state regulations or by 
local ordinance. However, implementation of the 
Clean Air Vehicle Policy is consistent with the goals 
and objectives of the City and County of San 
Francisco and the BAAQMD to improve regional air 
quality. The Policy states that 100% of vehicles in 
applicable fleets should be powered by clean fuels 
by the year 201 2, assuming clean air vehicles are 
available, reliable, and economical. 

Resource Efficient Building Ordinance (REB) 

The City's REB mandates that indoor air quality 
maintenance plans must be prepared for new 
construction and major renovation projects. 
Construction contracts must require the prevention 
of moisture contamination, and the removal of 
building materials contaminated by moisture, 
overseen by an independent industrial hygienist. 
See Chapter 1 1 , Green Buildings and Facilities, for 
additional information on this ordinance. 



30 



Where Are We Now? 



What Have We Accomplished? 



Air Emissions 

Air quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay Area 
are in compliance with the federal and state standards 
except for ozone and particulate matter. For these 
air quality parameters the Bay Area is designated by 
the U.S. EPA as a non-attainment area, requiring the 
submittal of an implementation plan by the state to 
bring the area into compliance with the standards. 
ARB is currently drafting the latest implementation 
plan for submittal to the U.S. EPA. 

Emission Inventory Results 

Current air pollutant emissions from the various 
stationary sources at the Airport, excluding the 
tenant operations, are summarized below. 



Estimated Historical Annual Air Pollutant Emissions from 
Stationary Sources 



TOG Toxic Organic Gases 
ROG Reactive Organic Gases 
NOx Nitrogen Oxides 
PM,„ Particulate Matter less than 
10 microns in diameter, which 
are the greatest concern to 
public health 



Source: California Air 
Resources Board 

Facility ID: 1784www.arb. 



,5 15 




ca.gov/app/emsinv/ 
facinfo/facinfo.php 



2003 



2004 



2005 



SFO's comprehensive air emission reduaion program 
addresses the many sources of air emissions: aircraft 
ground service equipment, on-Airport operations 
such as refueling and heating/cooling, and cars and 
other vehicles accessing the Airport. 

Key ground transportation-related air quality 
improvement program elements include: 

► High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Ground Access 
Improvement program, 

► Transit-First program, 

► Employee Trip Reduction program, 

► Clean Air Vehicle Program/Alternative Fuels 

program, and 

► Airside Operations and Facility Improvement 

program. 

HOV Ground Access Improvement 

► AirTrain: As described in Chapter 3, Climate 
Change/ Global Warming, SFO inaugurated 
service on AirTrain in 2003. AirTrain eliminated 
200,000 shuttle bus trips from the terminal loop 
annually, reducing both traffic congestion and the 
emissions created by traditionally fueled vehicles. 

► Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART): BART began 
serving SFO in 2003, connecting the Airport with 
downtown San Francisco, the Peninsula and much 
of the East Bay. Customers using the BART system 
are able to exit the Airport BART station and walk 
directly to the international airline ticket counters or 
connect to AirTrain (one level up at a shared AirTrain/ 
BART Station) to reach the domestic terminals. 

► Caltrain: A BART cross-platform connection to 
Caltrain at the Millbrae station provides direct 
access from the Peninsula's key rail route to the 
Airport terminals. 



31 



5 



Air Quality Enhancement 



Transit-First Program 

SFO is a leader among U.S. airports in the use of 
shared ground transportation for Airport access. 
SFO's Transit-First Policy pronnotes the use of public 
and private HOV for traveling to the Airport. This 
results in innproving regional internnodal ground 
access between the Airport and regional rail, bus, 
and waterborne transit systems. The Transit-First 
Policy gives priority to public and private high 
occupancy transportation modes. This policy is 
designed to reduce traffic congestion and maximize 
the convenience of shared transit. The 2006 Air 
Passenger Survey indicated that 47% of air passengers 
used public transportation in the form of BART, 
Caltrain, SamTrans, door-to-door vans, taxis, limou- 
sines, charters, or Airporter bus service to access the 
Airport. SFO intends to sustain this high level of 
public transit use and to continue the development 
and implementation of additional innovative and 
environmentally responsible programs in this arena. 




Employee Trip Reduction Program 

In 1 993, SFO added a "Trip Reduction Rule" to the 
Airport's official Rules and Regulations aimed at 
reducing employee trips to the airport in single 
occupancy vehicles. The Trip Reduction Rule met 



A portion of SFO's 
CNC-powered bus fleet 
awaiting deployment. 



the requirements of BAAQMD Regulation 1 3 and 
also complied with a development agreement 
between SFO and the surrounding communities 
relating to SFO's Master Plan forTerminal Expansion. 

More than 1 8,000 people work at SFO on a round- 
the-clock schedule. SFO's Employee Trip Reduction 
Program includes the following elements: 

► New employees are notified of the Airport's Trip 
Reduction Rule. 

► SFO conducts a biennial survey of all employees 
regarding their commuting habits. 

► SFO requires that all employers with 1 00 or more 
employees based at SFO appoint an Employee 
Transportation Coordinator (ETC), and prepare 
and implement a Trip Reduction Program. 

► Ground transportation information is provided at 
information booths in the terminals and through 
a public media campaign and curbside program. 

► Financial incentive programs are in place for 
the use of some types of public transport by 
SFO employees. 

Clean Air Vehicle Program/Alternative 
Fuel Program 

SFO adopted a Clean Air Vehicle Policy in 2000. 
Aggressive target dates were set for the clean 
vehicle transition. The policy mandated that 50% 
of the vehicles in applicable fleets at SFO use clean 
fuels by 2005 and 1 00% by 201 2. Clean fuels used in 
this program include CNG, propane, electricity, and 
biodiesel.The fleets subject to this policy include 
hotel and parking courtesy shuttles, door-to-door 
vans, taxis, and airline crew shuttles, among others. 
On the airfield, vehicles such as baggage tractors, 
belt loaders, and aircraft pushback tractors are 
powered by clean fuels. 



32 



The Airport met the 2005 goal for hotel and parking 
courtesy shuttle vehicles and public transit, and 
expects to meet the 201 2 goal for door-to-door 
vans and other categories of regulated vehicles. In 
2003, the entire category of rental car shuttles was 
virtually eliminated and replaced with the nearly 
zero emission AirTrain system. The lack of replace- 
ment vehicle acquisition funds following the events 
of September 1 1, 2001 prevented the 2005 goal 
from being reached in certain categories such as 
Airport-owned vehicles. 

SFO is progressing in its clean vehicle transition with 
the assistance of regional, state and federal grant 
funding. The Airport has secured $6 million in vehicle 
acquisition incentives from the BAAQMD, San 
Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation 
Commission, and San Francisco County Transportation 
Authority for vehicles operating to and from the 
Airport. Most of this funding has been spent for 
commercial passenger transportation services at 
SFO. These services use vehicles that accumulate 
high mileage and contribute significant reductions 
in emissions when powered by alternative fuels. The 
Air District typically pays the total cost, or a significant 
portion of the cost, of converting a vehicle from 
conventional fuel to CNG. In addition, $1 million has 
been secured from the FAA for conversion of airfield 
vehicles, infrastructure, and on-Airport shuttles. 

Financial Incentives 

The Airport also uses financial and non-financial 
incentives to encourage alternative fuel use by fleet 
operators, including preferential trip fees for courtesy 
shuttles and "head of the line"privileges for CNG 
taxicabs. Incentives for hotel courtesy vehicle trip 
reduction have cut miles traveled by these vehicles 
by one-third. The Airport levies high fees on those 
operators that do not comply with the requirements 
of the Clean Vehicle Policy. 



SFO encourages airlines to replace diesel-powered 
aircraft ground support equipment with electric- or 
propane-powered equipment. It promotes the use 
of 400 Hz gate power and pre-conditioned air instead 
of conventionally-fueled ground power units and 
aircraft auxiliary power units. The Airport also offers 
a pre-tax deduction service to employees who opt 
to purchase monthly passes on BART, Caltrain, or 
other Bay Area public transit alternatives. 

FAA ILEAV Pilot Program 

In 2001, SFO was selected as one of 10 airports 
around the country to participate in an innovative 
program to improve air quality by encouraging the 
use of alternative fuel vehicles. 

The Inherently Low-Emission Airport Vehicle (ILEAV) 
program has substantially reduced ozone and carbon 
monoxide emissions at airports located in non- 
attainment areas. The program is estimated to have 
eliminated 1,100 tons of ozone pollutants and 2,300 
tons of carbon monoxide emissions per year in the San 
Francisco Bay area alone. Under the ILEAV program, 




()/;c oftlmr chxtric vcliidc nxlutPfm\> uiiili ,ii\iiliihlc 
for piihlii /(.<(■ ill liitcniiitioiiijl Gim{;c G. 



33 




Air Quality Enhancement 



the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 
provided 50% of the cost of low-emission vehicles 
as well as the cost of construction of refueling and 
recharging stations, up to a total of $2 million for 
each airport. SFO used its funds to acquire 142 low- 
emission vehicles and airfield equipment, including 
baggage tugs, belt loaders, and on-road vehicles, 
and 30 new electric charge ports. 

Alternative Fuel Infrastructure and Equipment 
► Compressed Natural Gas: The majority of 
on-road alternative fuel vehicles at the Airport 
operate on CNG. To facilitate the CNG shift, SFO 
established the largest public access CNG 
refueling complex in Northern California. At 
these facilities, natural gas supplied by Pacific 
Gas and Electric (PG&E) pipelines is compressed 
to 4,500 pounds per square inch. The combined 
fueling stations feature 1 5 fast fill hoses supplying 
95,000 gasoline-equivalent gallons of CNG per 
month to customers. Trillium USA and Clean 



CNG Fuel Demand by Operator Type 




34 



Energy operate the two fueling stations. To date, 
more than 400 diesel and gasoline-powered 
vehicles have been replaced with CNG models, 
resulting in savings of 1 .1 5 million gallons of 
gasoline and diesel fuel per year. In 2006, gross 
COj emissions reduction associated with the 
CNG facility totaled 1 ,460 tons. CNG vehicle CO^ 
emissions are about 30% less than gasoline 
vehicle emissions per mile traveled. 

► Electric Vehicles: SFO's Clean Air Vehicle Policy 
extends to airfield vehicles and equipment. The 
move to electrify ground service equipment 
vehicles started more than a decade ago. 
Approximately 1,000 non-road capable vehicles 
access the Airfield. Of this total, about 270 electric 
vehicles are in use, resulting in savings of 500,000 
gallons of diesel fuel per year. 

► Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Taxi fleets are 
expanding their use of hybrid-electric cars, and 
the Taxi Commission is currently developing a 
policy on this issue. There are now 35 hybrid- 
electric cabs and about 1 30 CNG cabs in the City 
fleet. Hertz and Fox Rent-a-Car have a limited 
number of hybrid-electric vehicles for rent, 
including the Toyota Prius. The number of 
hybrid-electric vehicles for rent is expected to 
increase significantly in the future. 

► Biodiesel Use: Since 2001 , SFO has gradually 
retrofitted diesel-engine parking shuttle buses to 
use B-20 soy-derived biodiesel (20% soy fuel, 
80% diesel fuel). Currently all 1 9 Airport-owned 
shuttle buses are using the B-20 biodiesel with 
diesel fuel savings of 35,000 gallons per year. 

► Electric Vehicle Charging Stations: Three 
electric vehicle recharging units are located in 
International Garage G and are available for 
public use. 

► Hydrogen-CNG Blend: Hydrogren-CNG blend 
(HCNG) has been tested in modified vehicles by 




Two SFO electric- 
powered vehicles, charging 
while not in use. 



the U.S. Department of Energy. SFO, in conjunction 
with the San Mateo City/County Association of 
Governments, is exploring the use of a hydrogen- 
CNG blend for use in internal combustion engines. 
This would further reduce CO^ emissions beyond 
the reduction achievable by CNG use alone. The 
blend would be dispensed from a special pump 
at one of SFO's CNG stations. 

Clean Air Vehicle Program Successes 

Clean air vehicle use substantially reduces traditional 
vehicle emissions. Despite the post-2001 air traffic 
downturn which seriously delayed vehicle replace- 
ments in many cases, SFO has met the conversion 
targets for public transit vehicles, hotel courtesy 
shuttles, off-Airport parking shuttles, and aircraft 
ground support equipment. The Airport is working 
with theTaxi Commission to further expand alternative 
fuel use by taxis. By 201 2, SFO plans to replace 1 00% 
of conventional vehicles with clean air vehicles, 
where viable clean fuel options are available. 

Clean Fuel Vehicle Count 

By the end of 2007, the number of vehicles using 
CNG, propane, electric and other alternate fuels at 
SFO is anticipated to be as follows: 

► 1 00 highway coaches (filtered exhaust diesel), 

► 23 transit buses (1 1 CNG, 1 2 filtered exhaust diesel), 

► 1 60 minibuses (1 35 CNG, 25 filtered exhaust diesel), 

► 1 00 door-to-door, charter, and Courtesy Vans (CNG), 

► 200 taxicabs (1 65 CNG, 35 hybrid-electric), 



► 63 staff and utility vehicles (29 CNG, 28 electric, 
6 hybrid-electric as of February 2007, with plans 

to add 48 new CNG vehicles by January 2008). 

There are an estimated 2,500 limousines and 1 ,000 
charter vehicles that visit SFO infrequently that will be 
encouraged by SFO to use alternative fuels or clean 
air vehicles as the respective products become 
commercially available. Including limousine and 
charter vehicles, there are approximately 6,500 
permitted commercial passenger-carrying vehicles 
in the SFO fleet. 

Airside Operations and Facility Improvements 

Over the past several years SFO has implemented a 
number of measures to achieve efficient use of natural 
resources and to reduce the production of waste 
products and emissions, including the modification 
of operating procedures and the use of technologi- 
cally-advanced equipment. 

Procedures employed by aircraft operators can 
reduce fuel consumption and emissions associated 
with aircraft ground operations. SFO does not 
currently have any mandatory programs requiring 
fuel efficiency or emission reduction operations by 
air carriers. However, most airlines have internal 
policies aimed at reducing fuel consumption that also 
result in associated reductions in air emissions. SFO 
encourages airlines and ground service equipment 
operators to institute environmentally and economi- 
cally beneficial operational procedures, such as: 



► Single-engine taxiing of aircraft, 

► Airside alternative fuel infrastructure, 

► Conversion to clean fuel ground service equipment, 

► Route planning, altitude selection, and reduced 
fuel loading for aircraft weight control, and 

► Towing aircraft between terminals and runways. 



► 15 limousines (hybrid-electric), 

► 30 rental cars (hybrid-electric), 

► 400 airfield vehicles (230 electric, 1 70 propane), 

► 36 Airtrain rail cars (electric), 

► 110 BART cars for Airport line (electric), and 



35 



Air Quality Enhancement 



Airside Alternative Fuel Infrastructure 

SFO has installed ground based energy supply and 
service facilities to curtail the use of auxiliary power 
systems for aircraft electricity and air conditioning: 

► 400 Hz Ground Power is provided at International 
Terminal Gates and at numerous gates at Boarding 
Areas B, E, and F to reduce the use of aircraft 
auxiliary power units. 

► Procurement and use of portable Ground Power 
Units (GPUs) by Airport tenants is encouraged by 
the Airport when Ground Power is not available 
at the gate. 

► Pre-conditioned air is provided at International 
Terminal Gates to reduce use of aircraft auxiliary 
power units. 

► It is Airport Policy to include installation of 
pre-conditioned air and 400 Hz power at all 
new facilities. 



36 



6. Noise Abatement 




Through an aggressive home insulation program, San Francisco International Airport 
became the first major airport in California to reduce its state-defined noise impact 
area from more than 1 5,000 residences to zero. 

SFO installed its first noise monitoring system in 1975. Today, the system consists of 
29 noise monitoring sites located in communities surrounding the Airport. Current 
technology enables not only the monitoring of noise levels, but also the ability to 
correlate noise events and complaints with individual flight operations and aircraft 
types. In 1 983, SFO became the first airport in the country to prepare a comprehensive 
noise abatement and land use compatibility plan. By conducting a Federal Aviation 
Regulation (FAR) Part 150 Noise Study SFO was an early recipient of noise compat- 
ibility funds. These funds were used to implement a Noise Insulation Program serving 
more than 13,000 homes. This chapter describes the Airport's efforts to reduce the 
impacts of noise. 

► Provide technical support to the San Francisco 

International Airport/Community Roundtable, 

► Serve as the focal point for community outreach 
in its efforts to reduce the impacts of aircraft 
noise on the surrounding communities. 

► Implement innovative technologies to better 
serve the communities impacted by aircraft 
noise so that SFO continues to serve as a national 
leader in aircraft noise abatement programs. 



SFO Air Traffic 
Control (ATC) 

In order to reduce noise 
impacts for southern 
San Mateo County 
residents, SFO success- 
fully worked with ATC 
to achieve a 1,000-foot 
increase in altitude for 
arriving aircraft, thereby 
reducing noise impacts 
on nearby residents. 



Policy 

SFO shall continue to reduce noise impacts on the 
surrounding communities by encouraging the use 
of quieter aircraft and advanced final approach 
procedures by airlines, as well as by other means 
within the control of the Commission, 

Goals 

► Provide information regarding aircraft operations 
to the general public. 



39 



Noise Abatement 



Land Use Compa tibility with Aircraft Noise 

The FAR Part 1 50 designates noise compatibility areas by land use. Residences are 
considered compatible with Airport noise if the Community Noise Equivalent Level 
(CNEL) is below 65 dB. If a residential home is sound insulated, its compatibility 
threshold is raised to 70 dB. Commercial land uses are compatible with CNEL of 80 
dB or below. The noise metric used by SFO and the State of California, CNEL, gives 
both evening and late night noise a heavier weight to account for the added 
disturbance caused by such noise. 




Tliis figure shows the estimated 1983 and 2003 63 dB aircraft noise contours, 
demonstrating a significant reduction in noise impact around SFO. 



Federal/State/Local Mandates 

California Code of Regulations Title 21, 
Subchapter 6 

This mandate describes noise standards by defining 
metrics terminology and requirements regarding 
compatible land use. SFO has been designated by 
San Mateo County as a "Noise Problem Airport" 
requiring noise monitoring and the filing of a quarterly 
noise report with the State Division of Aeronautics. 

Where Are We Now? 

For more than 20 years, SFO has been a national leader 
in noise reduction programs and policies. Through 
these efforts, the number of people living in the 65 dB 
CNEL contour, the area defined as experiencing 
significant aircraft noise, had dropped from 35,100 
in 1976 to 3,298 at the beginning of 2000, a 91% 
decrease. Today through offers of sound insulation 
and avigation easements, SFO has been able to 
eliminate all incompatible land uses, as defined in 
Title 21 of the California Code of Regulations, within 
the noise impact area. Consequently SFO became the 
first major airport in California to succeed in eliminating 
all incompatible land uses within the State 65 dB 
CNEL contour and to operate without a variance. 

Noise impact of aircraft overflights are shown in the 
adjacent figure which depicts the estimated 1 983 and 
2005 65 dB aircraft noise contours around the Airport. 
Due to its geographic location and the landing and 
takeoff patterns at SFO, most of the aircraft noise impact 
occurs over the Bay with a small portion of the 65 dB 
CNEL contour overlapping the municipal areas of 
San Bruno and South San Francisco. 

What Have We Accomplished? 

The Noise Abatement Office is responsible for 
implementing a comprehensive Aircraft Noise 
Abatement Plan and for identifying noise reduction 



40 



The Fly Quiet Program and the 
Jon C. Long Fly Quiet Awards 

San Francisco International Airport's Fly Quiet Progrann is an Airport Comnnunity 
Roundtable initiative implemented by the Aircraft Noise Abatement Office. 
The purpose of this program is to encourage individual airlines to operate as 
quietly as possible at SFO.The program promotes a participatory approach in 
complying with noise abatement procedures and objectives by grading an 
airline's performance and by making the scores available to the public via 
newsletters (www.flyquietsfo.com), publications, and public meetings. 
Fly Quiet encourages implementation of new noise abatement initiatives by 
recognizing and publicizing active participation. 



Jon C. Long 

Noise Abatement Officer, 

SFO Noise Abatement Office, 2000-2003 



Mr. Long joined SFO as the Noise Abatement Officer in 2000. Mr. Long 
brought his unique management style to SFO, creating a successful dynamic 
within the Noise Office, with the citizens of San Mateo and San Francisco Counties, 
and with the San Francisco International Airport/Community Roundtable. With a 
background in noise abatement at Sacramento International Airport and 
extensive experience as a pilot in the Air Force, Mr. Long's career spanned 
many aspects of noise abatement and aviation. Mr. Long worked tirelessly on 
implementing the Fly Quiet Program at SFO. His dedication to this project is 
evident in its success. After his untimely passing in June 2003, the Annual 
Noise Abatement Awards, issued by the Airport/ Community Roundtable to 
qualifying airlines, are named in his honor. 




Fly Quiet Report 



SFO Arairt NOM AtMMnM OHat 
Thra Ouarw ;00e 




initiatives. The Office works collaboratively with the 
Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) ATC tower 
and the airlines to reduce nighttime noise and 
explore innovative final approach procedures (such 
as gliding) for minimizing noise generation. 

The Fly Quiet Program 

This initiative, implemented by the Aircraft Noise 
Abatement Office, encourages individual airlines to 
operate as quietly as possible at SFO. The program 
promotes a participatory approach in complying 
with the noise abatement procedures. As part of the 
program the Airport staff generates a Fly Quiet Report, 
which provides airline scores on the following elements: 

► Fleet noise quality 

► Exceedances of allowable noise levels. 

► Nighttime preferential runway use. 

► Shoreline departure frequency, 

► Gap departure quality, and 

► Foster City Arrival Rating, 



41 



SFO Operations vs. Noise Complaints (1999-2005) 



500,000 



400,000 




50,000 



40,000 



30,000 



20,000 



10,000 



1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 



These quarterly Fly Quiet Reports are available for 
viewing at www.flyquietsfo.com/FactsSheets.htm. 

Noise Complaint Program 

The SFO Noise Abatement Office maintains a 
database of all complaints received regarding noise 
nuisance from nearby communities. These 
complaints are used to research the aircraft flight 
operations leading to the complaints. The data 
derived are then shared with aviation industry 
professionals to develop operational changes that 
could reduce or eliminate the nuisance conditions. 



Aircraft Noise Monitoring System in 2006, replacing 
the previous monitoring system which had been in 
operation for over 20 years. The enhanced system 
allows the staff to correlate noise events and complaints 
to individual flight operations and aircraft types and 
includes new digital noise monitoring and additional 
noise monitors in San Mateo County communities. 
In addition, the system provides more technical 
information for enhanced data analysis and real- 
time collection of aircraft flight track data. Live flight 
movement and aircraft paths are available for 
viewing at live.airportnetworl<.com/sfo. 



Aircraft Noise IVIonitoring System 

SFO maintains a state-of-the-art permanent noise 
monitoring system to keep track of noise levels in 
communities around the Airport. SFO has deployed 
29 noise monitoring stations located around the Bay 
Area. Information produced from the Noise Monitoring 
System is central to the operations of the Aircraft 
Noise Abatement Office, which installed a new 



Tal<ing an Aggressive Approach on 
Nighttime Operations 

SFO was one of the first airports in the country to 
begin a FAR Part 161 study (Notice and Approval of 
Airport Noise and Access Restrictions) to reduce 
aircraft noise during nighttime hours. Although this 
study was not completed, it resulted in a voluntary 
reduction of nighttime operations by airlines. 



42 



San Francisco International Airport/Community Roundtable 



San Francisco International Airport/Community Roundtable 




The San Francisco International Airport/Connnnunity Roundtable is one of the longest established community- 
based airport noise nnitigation organizations in the country, and is an example of neighborhood groups working 
cooperatively with the Airport and the aviation industry to reduce noise impacts. 

Established in 1981, the Roundtable's 45 representatives and alternates are elected officials representing the City 
and County of San Francisco and San Mateo County, as well as advisory members, airline chief pilots, and FAA staff. 
SFO Airport Director John L. Martin and his staff support and attend these monthly meetings, at which public 
discussion focuses on airport noise abatement activities. 



Noise Abatement 

Sound insulation being 
installed in a house 
within the 65 dB CNEL 
noise contour. 



More information on the San Francisco International Airport/Community Roundtable can be found at 
www.sforoundtable.org. 



SFO Noise Monitor 

The Airport lias 29 
noise monitors located 
around the Bay Area. 




Coordination with FAA Air Traffic Control 

By working with the FAA ATC, SFO has been able to 
suggest changes to the approach and departure 
procedures in order to reduce noise impacts for 
southern San Mateo County residents. SFO success- 
fully worked with ATC to achieve a 1,000-foot 
increase in altitude for arriving aircraft. Additionally, 
an increase of altitude for transpacific arrival routes 
from 6,000 to 8,000 feet above Mean Sea Level over 
the communities near the Woodside navigational 
aid resulted in a higher flight altitude over the entire 
southern San Mateo County area, thereby reducing 
aircraft noise over the community. 

Noise Reduction Feasibility Study 

San Francisco International Airport's Aircraft Noise 
Abatement Office is working with the Boeing 
Company, the FAA, and United Airlines on "Oceanic 
Tailored Arrivals" (OTA) to reduce noise from arriving 
flights from the Pacific Rim. 



Trials of the procedure were made in August/ 
September, 2006 and December, 2006/January, 
2007, and the data are now being evaluated. The 
strategy is based on a simple concept: a gliding 
aircraft with engines at near idle is quieter than an 
aircraft changing altitudes and engine thrust 
multiple times during an approach. 

Airlines are excited about the concept of OTA because 
it could save fuel, ensure more accurate arrival times, 
and potentially simplify the final approach following 
a long (12+ hours) trans-Pacific flight. Air traffic 
controllers believe the OTA will assist them in planning 
ideal descents and improve efficiency during high 
traffic periods. Communities along the arrival routes 
would also benefit because the aircraft flying an OTA 
would operate at reduced power and with few or no 
drag-inducing and noise making surfaces (flaps, speed 
brakes, and landing gear) deployed. Air pollution 
would also be reduced by reducing fuel use. 



43 



7. Water Conservation and Water Quality Enhancement 




Water conservation makes existing freshwater supplies from the Sierra Nevada 
mountains and the Alameda and Peninsula watersheds go further and protects the 
natural state of watersheds. Using less water also relieves pressure on wastewater 
treatment facilities and reduces energy consumption for water heating or cooling. 
Water conservation also contributes to habitat protection and generates cost savings. 
Wastewater treatment and stormwater runoff management at the Airport contribute 
to the enhancement of water quality in the lower San Francisco Bay where these 
effluents are discharged. Both water conservation initiatives and water quality 
protection are discussed in this chapter. 



A high level of wastewater 
treatment protects the Bay 
and the natural resources 
surrounding the Airport. 



Policy 

SFO shall minimize potable water use by deploying 
water efficient equipment and facilities and shall 
contribute to improving water quality in the lower 
San Francisco Bay through state-of-the-art wastewater 
treatment and enhanced stormwater management. 

Goals 

► Maximize water conservation and minimize 
water use and waste. 

► Strive to expand the use of the treated wastewater 
for landscaping irrigation and gray water uses, 
thereby reducing the demand for potable water. 

► Enhance the management of stormwater runoff 
and non-stormwater discharges to the Bay. 

► Discharge treated wastewater that meets or 
exceeds regulatory standards. 



Federal/State/Local Mandates 
Clean Water Act 

Established in 1 972, the Clean Water Act prohibits 
the discharge of pollutants to the waters of the 
United States without a permit. National Pollutant 
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits are 
required for the discharge of treated wastewater 
from the Airport's two treatment plants. The Airport 
maintains current permits for these facilities. 
Management of stormwater runoff at the Airport is 
also regulated under the NPDES Permit issued for 
the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant. 

The San Francisco Bay Area Regional Water Quality 
Control Board is the local agency that issues the 
NPDES permits and establishes the required treatnnent 
levels for domestic and industrial wastewater and best 
management practices (BMPs) to improve the quality 
of stormwater runoff generated at the Airport. 

45 



Water Conservation and Water Quality Enhancement 



Resource Efficient Building Ordinance (REB) 

The City's REB mandates that new and replacement 
toilets cannot consume more that 1 .6 gallons of water 
per flush and new and replacement showerheads 
cannot consume more than 1 .5 gallons per minute. 
See Chapter 7 1, Green Buildings and Facilities, for 
additional information on this ordinance. 



Where Are We Now? 
Water Use 

Some 479 million gallons of water were used by the 
Airport in 2006, almost 1 5 gallons per passenger. 
This water use includes facility cleaning and food 
service, as well as restrooms in the Terminals. 

Wastewater 

SFO discharged an average of 640,000 gallons per 
day of treated sanitary wastewater and 630,000 
gallons per day of treated industrial wastewater into 
lower San Francisco Bay in 2006. The wastewaters 
were treated in the Airport's sanitary and industrial 
wastewater treatment plants and the discharges 
met or exceeded the quality standards established 
in the NPDES Permits issued for the two plants by 
the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Water Quality 
Control Board. 

Stormwater 

Runoff from areas where industrial activities are 
located is diverted to four detention ponds with a 
combined capacity of 8.6 million gallons. Runoff 
collected in these ponds is pumped to the industrial 
wastewater treatment plant for treatment before 
being discharged to the Bay. Any exce^ runoff 
generated by continuing or consecutive storm events 
is discharged direaly to the Bay. A significant 
portion of annual stormwater runoff from industrial 
areas, especially the first flush of each storm, \9 
captured for treatment. Stormwater runoff from a 
small area at the Airport flows into bioswalesigrassy 
channels) before being discharged to a wetland area. 




Stoii,:,: J, LI ,ni:,_fifrow a small area at the Airport flows 
into bioswales before being discharged to a wetland area. 



What Have We Accomplished? 

Water Conservation 

Since the early 1 990s, SFO has been implementing 
an aggressive water conservation program, including 
automatic shutoff fixtures in nearly every public 
restroom. In addition, all new buildings are required 
to have low-flow restroom fixtures and automatic 
shut-off valves to conserve water 

Water Reuse 

Currently, the Airport uses treated wastewater for 
the irrigation of all landscaping at the Sanitary and 
Industrial Wastewater treatment plants. The Airport 
plans to evaluate the use of reclaimed water for 
toilet flushing in new buildings and for irrigation of 
additional landscaping. 

Wastewater Treatment 

SFO operates two separate wastewater treatment 
plants: a Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plant and 
an Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant. The 
sanitary wastewater treatment plant, named the 
Mel Leong Treatment Plant, provides secondary 



46 



treatment for sanitary wastewater from the terminal 
restrooms, aircraft blue waters, aircraft hangars, 
restaurants, shops and other Airport facilities. In 
2005, the Airport completed a new $37 million 
state-of-the-art Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) 
treatment unit and other upgrades to the Mel 
Leong Treatment Plant The plant has a design 
treatment capacity of 2.2 million gallons per day. 

The Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant treats 
wastewater from industrial sources at the Airport 
and the first flush of stormwater runoff collected in 
the storm drain system from developed areas of 
the Airport. 

The Airport is currently planning to upgrade the 
Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant. Two options 
under consideration are to maintain a separate 
industrial wastewater treatment plant or to pre-treat 
the industrial wastewater in the existing plant and 
then process the flow through the new SBR unit at 
the sanitary wastewater treatment plant With either 
option, the Airport is working towards combining the 
separate permits into a single wastewater discharge 
permit to reduce redundancies in regulatory 
compliance reporting. 



The Airport is meeting the treatment goals for both 
wastewater treatment plants by managing these 
plants at maximum attainable efficiency for the 
treatment technologies used in these facilities. 

Stormwater Treatment 

A key element of the Airport's Stormwater Pollution 
Prevention Plan (SWPPP) to minimize the discharge 
of pollutants in stormwater runoff was the voluntary 
construaion of storm runoff detention ponds with 
8.6 million gallons of combined capacity. The first 
flush of the runoff from each storm event is collected 
over most of the developed areas of the Airport and 
is stored in these detention basins. The stored 
runoff is then pumped to the Industrial Wastewater 
Treatment Plant where it undergoes secondary 
treatment before being discharged to the Bay. The 
Airport construaed these detention basins voluntarily 
to protect the quality of water in the Bay The 
Airport has also developed stormwater pollution 
prevention requirements for industrial and 
construction activities. For all Airport and tenant 
construction projects, a SWPPP must be submitted 
during the permitting process. These SWPPPs are 
reviewed for completeness by the Stormwater 
Pollution Prevention (SWPP) staff, and revisions to 



Tlie upgraded state-of- 
the-art Mel Leong 
Treatment Plant lias a 
design capadty of 2.2 
million gallons per day 
and is primarily used to 
treat sanitary wastetvater 
generated at tlie Airport. 




Water Conservation and Water Quality Enhancement 



the plans are requested as appropriate. Construction 
activities are regularly monitored by SWPP staff to 
ensure that BMPs are ennployed for the prevention of 
stormwater pollution at each site. The industrial 
elements of the SWPPP cover all non-construction 
activities at the Airport and provide BMPs for 
preventing stormwater pollution at each site. The 
BMPs include general maintenance, hazardous 
materials storage practices, clean-up of minor leaks 
and spills of petroleum products or other chemicals, 
street sweeping, runway surface scrubbing, etc. The 
SWPP staff conduct routine inspections of all Airport 
facilities to ensure compliance with BMPs. Citations 
and warning letters are issued by the staff if any 
deficiencies in the BMPs are observed at a site. The 
site is then revisited to ensure that corrective 
measures have been implemented. 

The NPDES permit for the Industrial Wastewater 
Treatment Plant includes specific provisions for 
visual observation of all stormwater outfalls during 
storm events and during dry weather conditions. 
Sampling and analysis of stormwater discharges at 
each outfall is also required during two major storm 
events in each wet season. 



Nntiue vei^etation 
planted aroutid tlie 
Mel Leong Treatment 
Plant is irrigated with 
treated wastewater 




One of many automatic shut-off faucets the Airport 
uses to conserve water 



Advantages of Low-Flow Plumbing Fixtures 

In 1 995, the National Energy Policy Act mandated the use of toilets that use no more than 1 .6 gallons of water 
per flush. Since then, low-flow plumbing fixtures including toilets, faucet aerators, and showerheads have been 
developed that save substantial amounts of water compared to conventional fixtures while providing the same utility. 



Low-flow toilets use a maximum of 1.6 gallons of water per flush compared with about 3.5 gallons of water used 
by a standard toilet. Low-flow shower heads .use about IVi gallons of water per minute compared to between 
4 and 5 gallons per minute used by conventional heads. Low-flow faucet aerators can cut the water usage of faucets 
by as much as 40% from 4 to IVi gallons per minute. Both of these plumbing fixtures are used widely at SFO. 



8. Natural Resources Management 




SFO property includes appreciable acreage of seasonal wetlands, freshwater marsh, 
tidal salt marsh, and mud flats. These resources provide habitat for a wide variety of 
vegetative communities and terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. For example, wildlife 
populations in the area include the endangered San Francisco Garter Snake and the 
threatened California Red-Legged Frog. Both in daily operations and during planning 
and implementation of development projects, SFO strives to preserve local natural 
resources and, when possible, to explore opportunities for improving natural habitats 
and managing wildlife populations while ensuring the safe operations of the Airport, 
as described in this chapter. 



A herd of goats is used 
to graze overgrown and 
undesirable invasive 
vegetation in a critical 
habitat area, to reduce fire 
hazards to adjacent homes 
without posing potential 
harm to the native 
endangered Garter Snake. 



Policy 

SFO shall work in partnership with local, State, and 
Federal agencies to protect habitat on Airport 
property and on Airport land West of Bayshore, 
while ensuring the safe operation of the Airport. 

Goals 

► Preserve existing wetlands' biological resources 
at the Airport. 

► Protect and restore viable existing rennnant 
natural ecosystems on Airport property. 

Federal/State/Local Mandates 

Endangered Species Act 

The Endangered Species Act provides broad 
protection for species offish, wildlife and plants that 



are listed as threatened or endangered in the U.S. or 
elsewhere. Provisions are made for listing species, as 
well as for recovery plans and the designation of 
critical habitat for Listed Species. The Act outlines 
procedures for federal agencies to follow when 
taking actions that may jeopardize Listed Species, 
and contains exceptions and exemptions. A small 
area of undeveloped SFO property currently 
contains habitat for the San Francisco Garter Snake 
(endangered) and the California Red-Legged Frog 
(threatened). In addition, California Clapper Rail 
(endangered) habitat has been identified adjacent 
to the north end of the Airport. 

Wildlife Hazard Management Plan 

Federal Aviation Regulation Part 139.337 requires 
airports to prepare a Wildlife Hazard Management 
Plan and secure approval for the plan from the 
Federal Aviation Administration. In recognition of 



51 




Natural Resources Management 




As part of SFO's 
Wetland Mitigation 
Program, the Millhrae 
Bayfront Park was 
expanded. 



the potential risk of serious aircraft damage or the 
loss of human life that could result from a wildlife 
strike, greater emphasis is being placed on preparing 
airport Wildlife Hazard Management Plans that 
effectively address the potential aircraft safet/ hazards. 

Habitat management is a critical element in any 
airport hazard management program. Non-woody 
or herbaceous vegetation accounts for the majority 
of wildlife habitat at most airports. SFO's Wildlife 
Hazard Management Plan has a vegetation 
management component to address this issue. 
SFO's Wildlife Hazard Management Plan is currently 
being updated. 

Where Are We Now? * 

As mitigation for its Master Plan construction 
projects, SFO has improved more than 558 acres of 
wetlands and tidal marshes throughout the Bay Area, 
committing more than $20 million to this effort. 



What Have We Accomplished? 

Wetland Mitigation Program 

Past construction projects have required conversion 
of some of the wetland areas to Airport uses. In 
such cases, SFO has implemented off-site mitigation 
measures by procuring and restoring private wetlands 
or by funding the re-establishment of wetlands on 
public property. 

Wetland mitigation projects include the restoration 
of Mountain Lake Park in partnership with the San 
Francisco Department of Recreation and Parks, and 
the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Together 
with the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, 
SFO contributed $3 million for restoring 18 acres of 
tidal marsh at Crissy Field at the Presidio. Other 
initiatives have included the following projects: 

► The India Basin Hunters Point Recreation Project 
plans to restore up to 3.4 acres of tidal marsh. 

► The Millbrae Bayfront Park project added to the 
existing park. 

► At the Oliver Brothers Salt Ponds, SFO and the 
Hayward Area Recreation and Park District 
restored and enhanced 324 acres of wetlands at 
a cost of more than $1.3 million. 

► In Palo Alto, SFO worked with the City to restore 
7.2 acres of tidal marsh. 

► At Outer Bair Island, SFO and the California 
Department of Fish and Game created 42 acres 
of wetlands and enhanced 1 40 acres of existing 
wetlands. 

► SFO plans to create 1 2 acres of new wetlands 
in the Hunters Point area in San Francisco, in 
conjunction with the California Department of 
Parks and Recreation and the California State 
Parks Foundation. 



52 



« 





Biologists liavf observed 
ail increase in the Garter 
Snake population on 
Airport-owned habitat. 



Research Support 



In recent years SFO has funded a number of 
environmental studies, such as a study of Pacific 
Herring Spawning in San Francisco Bay, the 
development of an inventory by the California 
Academy of Sciences of San Francisco Bay specimens, 
and biological surveys of species present in tideland 
areas around the Airport. 



endangered San Francisco Garter Snakes makes the 
use of power mowers infeasible. More recently, a herd 
of goats has been used to graze in areas that need 
to be cleared. Goats are effective in removing such 
weeds and vegetation as yellow star thistle, coyote 
brush, Scotch broom, and Himalayan Blackberry 
bush. A herd of about 400 animals can clear an acre 
a day depending on the type of vegetation. 



Vegetation Management/Habitat Protection 

In the wetland area west of the Bayshore Freeway, 
which is a habitat for the San Francisco Garter Snake 
and the California Red Legged Frog, SFO has 
implemented an innovative approach to vegetation 
management which reduces the use of heavy 
equipment in a fragile habitat. IVlaintenance of this 
area involves reducing overgrown and invasive 
vegetation to reduce the risk of fire to neighboring 
residential areas. Historically, the Airport used work 
crews with sickles for this task, as the presence of 



Together with the 
Golden Gate National 
Parks Conservancy, SFO 
contributed $3 million to 
restore 1 8 acres of tidal 
marsh in San Francisco. 





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9. Solid Waste Reduction and Recycling 




SFO operates the largest recycling progrann in San Mateo County, an exannple of the 
Airport's commitment to reducing solid waste. From the airlines to the terminals, 
from the construction site to the reprographics department, this chapter outlines the 
innovative and proven ways the Airport uses to maximize recycling of all waste products. 



"/ recycle at school all 
the time. Here too. " 
- Mother and daughter 
Minoo and Mehri Rose 
Sadri 

SFO has initiated a 
pilot program for sepa- 
rating various recyclable 
materials at the point 
of generation. In 2006, 
SFO recycled 54% 
of its municipal solid 
waste, contributing to 
the 95% of total soUd 
waste recycled that year. 



Policy 

SFO shall minimize the generation of solid waste 
from operations and shall recycle the collected 
waste products to the maximum extent practicable. 

Goals 

► Minimize the generation of solid waste from 
operations. 

► Recycle the collected waste products to the 
maximum extent practicable with a goal to 
recycle 75% of solid waste by 2010. 

Federal/State/Local Mandates 

Recycling program objectives are based on the 
mandates established in the California Integrated 
Waste Management Act (AB 939) and in the City 
and County of San Francisco Resource Conservation 
Ordinance. 

California Integrated Waste Management Act 
(AB 939) 

In 1 989, the Integrated Waste Management Act 
(Assembly Bill 939) was passed because of the 



increase in the solid waste stream and the decrease 
in available landfill capacity. The California Integrated 
Waste Management Board (CIWMB) was established 
pursuant to this Act, along with a disposal reporting 
system with CIWMB oversight, and facility and program 
planning procedure. AB 939 mandates a reduction of 
waste being disposed: jurisdictions were required to 
meet diversion goals of 25% by 1 995 and 50% by the 
year 2000. AB 939 also established an integrated 
framework for program implementation, solid waste 
planning, and solid waste facility and landfill compliance. 

Resource Conservation Ordinance 

In an effort to conserve natural resources and landfill 
space, the Resource Conservation Ordinance (RCO) 
directs SFO and all departments of the City and 
County of San Francisco to maximize the purchase 
of recycled products, reduce their waste, and divert 
as much solid waste from landfills as possible. To help 
achieve these objectives, the RCO sets standards for the 
procurement of products and requires City depart- 
ments to submit a resource conservation plan arKl 
annual waste diversion reports. Additionally, the 
RCO requires each City department to designate at 
least one person who would be responsible for 
ensuring compliance with the ordinance. 



5S 



Solid Waste Reduction and Recycling 





Trash collected at the Airport is separated 
and recycled at an off-site recycling facility. 
Currently SFO is implementing a pilot 
on-site source separation program. 




A pilot program for separating food wastes 
from non-food luastes at Airport restaurants 
was initiated in 2006. SFO supplied the 
color-coded and labeled containers and 
dedicated food waste storage bins to selected 
concessionaires. 



Recycled material separated and compacted; 
ready for shipment at the Sunset Scavenger 
Recycling Company, which recycles the solid 
waste collected at SFO. 



Additionally, the Board of Supervisors and Mayor 
Newsom passed two resolutions strengthening the 
Resource Conservation Ordinance, The 75% Waste 
Diversion Goal for City Departments Resolution sets 
a goal of 75% waste diversion by 201 and calls on 
City Departments to serve as a model for the rest of 
San Francisco. The City Composting Resolution urges 
City Departments with food service operations to 
purchase compostable food serviceware and 
participate in the food scraps composting program. 

Resource Efficient Building Ordinance (REB) 

The City's REB mandates that adequate/accessible, 
and convenient space must be provided for the 
collection, storage, and disposal of recyclable 
materials. In addition, all discarded fluorescent 
lamps must be recycled. REB also mandates that 
new construction and major renovation projects 
must develop and implement a plan to minimize 
construction and demolition debris disposal, and 
maximize the reuse and recycling of materials. See 
Chapter 1 1 , Green Buildings and Facilities, for 
additional information on this ordinance. 



Where Are We Now? 

Solid Waste Generation 

Solid waste is generated by Airport operations, airline 
and other tenant activities, demolition and construction 
projects, and ongoing airport improvement projects. 
SFO provides containers around the Airport for use 
by passengers and tenants. The waste material is 
transferred to on-site dumpsters and compactors 
that are hauled to an off-site processing facility. All 
solid waste is sorted by material type into recyclable or 
compostable components either at the Airport or at 
the off-site facility and the remaining solid waste is 
disposed of in a municipal landfill. 

► Over 50% of solid waste hauled by a private con- 
tractor was recycled at off-site facilities in 2005. 

► 1 00% of concrete/asphalt debris was recycled 
in 2005. 

► 89% of solid waste was diverted from landfill in 
2005: 

• Initiative launched to achieve over 75% 
demolition waste recycling and the goal was 
surpassed. 



56 



Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Rate* 



52.2% 



53.9% 





■ 



Metal, Glass, Plastic 
Paper 
Cardboard 
Wood 
Food 



2005 



2006 



Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Rate (2002-2006)^ 



54 



/ 




50 



2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 



Overall Landfill Diversion Rate* 



89% 



95% 



2004 



2005 



2006 



Hi Asphalt 



Asphalt Other C&D ■ Municipal Solid Waste 

* All three graphs show recycling as a % of total waste generated. 



► Solid Waste separation/reduction initiatives: 

• Pilot program initiated for food/trash waste 
separation at concessionaires. 

• Pilot program initiated for reducing paper 
towel use in bathrooms. 

• Pilot program initiated for separating various 
solid waste types at the point of generation. 

SFO's success in recycling and reducing waste is 
demonstrated by the graphics at left. 

Recycling also reduces CO^ emissions as reused 
material requires less energy to extract, transport, 
and process. In 2006, SFO's recycling initiatives 
saved 22,289 tons of equivalent CO^.* 

What Have We Accomplished? 

SFO's Solid Waste Reduction 

SFO has a highly successful solid waste collection 
program. SFO recently initiated several pilot programs 
aimed at improving the efficiency of solid waste 
separation at the source and increasing the percent- 
age of recycled construction and demolition waste 
at the Airport. Various facilities such as the Repro- 
graphics Department have developed specialized 
recycling programs aimed, for example, at reducing 
generation of paper and cardboard wastes. 

Solid Waste Collection and Recycling 

The Airport's contract with the solid waste collection 
contractor requires the recycling of various waste 
streams at the off-site processing facility. All waste 
that is deposited in the Airport terminal trash cans is 
disposed into on-site waste compactors. The hauler 
transports the compactor to the off-site transfer 
facility where the recyclable materials are recovered 
from the waste. The Airport's hauler uses a CNG- 
powered refuse truck funded with grant money 
secured by the Airport. 



57 



Solid Waste Reduction and Recycling 





Old Boarding Area A 
Demolition Project 

In this project, 23,200 
tons of demolition waste 
(81% of total waste) 
was recycled. 



The Airport is currently recycling a minimum of 50% 
of collected municipal solid waste. SFO aims to achieve 
an overall recycling rate of 75% or more by 201 0. 

Food Waste Separation 

A pilot program for separating the food wastes from 
non-food wastes at Airport restaurants was initiated 
in 2006. SFO supplied color-coded and labeled 
containers and dedicated food waste storage bins 
to selected concessionaires. In 2006, 18.3 tons of 
food waste was collected and composted. Based 
on the success of these measures, SFO is currently 
expanding this program to all food concessionaires. 

Paper Towel Use Optimization , 

A pilot program for optimizing the use of paper 
towels in bathroom facilities at the International 
Terminal Building was initiated in 2006. The purpose 
of this program is to assess the effectiveness of new 
paper towel dispensers at reducing the wasteful use 
of this resource. The new paper towel system 
dispenses a limited amount of paper for each use. 



If the results of the pilot program show a reduction 
in paper towel use, then the program could be 
expanded Airport-wide in the future. Other waste 
reduction strategies include the posting of signs on 
paper towel dispensers in all other bathroom 
facilities asking users, "Please conserve natural 
resources. Take only what you really need." 

On-Site Source Separation 

A pilot program is also being initiated for collecting 
various solid waste streams in separate containers at 
the Airport terminals. In this program, three distinct 
trash cans are provided at each location for use by the 
public for disposing of cans and bottles, newspaper, 
and all other types of trash. The cans are color-coded 
and are labeled clearly on the top and on two sides 
of each can. Data collected in the pilot program will 
be analyzed to assess the effectiveness of source 
separation and determine whether the program 
should be expanded Airport-wide. 

Enhancement of Construction and Demolition 
Waste Recycling 

The City's Policy calls for recycling a minimum of 
65% of non-hazardous construction and demolition 
waste generated at City construction projects. SFO 



58 



is experimenting with recycling more tlian 75% of 
tlie waste generated at Airport's demolition projects. 
At a recently completed abatement/demolition 
project at old Boarding Area A in Terminal 1 , the 
Airport achieved a recycling level of 81%. The results 
of this program at ongoing demolition projects will 
be reviewed to establish the maximum attainable 
recycling goal for future Airport construction and 
demolition projects. 

Wastewater Treatment Plant Waste Reduction 

In 2006, SFO initiated waste reduction strategies to 
deal with sludge that is produced as a residual of 
the Wastewater Treatment Plant processes. During 
that year, 68 tons of anaerobically digested sludge 
was dried on sand beds prior to being disposed of 
in a sanitary landfill in order to reduce volume and 
weight of the sludge transported and disposed of in 
landfills. In addition, 103 tons of sludge was 
dewatered and delivered to a composting facility. 




Soy-based Ink Can Used by the SFO 
Reprographics Department 

Soy-bdsed inks emit less volatile organic compounds 
during the printing process, they are renewable, arc 
biodegradable in landfills, and are less toxic than 
petroleum-based inks. 



8 CO^ emissions savings were calculated using EPA's WAste Reduction 
Model (WARM), available at www.epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/ 
waste/calculators/Warm^home.html. 



Reprographics Department Sustainability Practices 




The Airport's Reprographics Department has played a significant 
role in reducing the use of reprographics resources while continuing 
to serve the needs of the Airport. The actions taken by this 
Department are highlighted below. 

► The Airport is in the process of reducing the number of copier 
machines by 12% Airport-wide. This reduction will result in 
savings in the use of chemicals and electricity 

► 90% of all paper used by Reprographics and all other Airport 
departments contains 30% post-consumer recycled paper. This 
includes Airport stationery such as letterheads, envelopes and 
business cards, as well as reports, manuals, brochures, and day- 
to-day reproduction of documents. 



Nearly all of Airport engineering and architectural contracts 
and bid documents are reproduced on CDs and issued to 
contractors. This program reduces the use of paper for this 

procedure by 95%. 

Airport sections submit work orders for reprographics services 
electronically, eliminating the need for hard-copy work orders. 

The use of CDs and electronic work orders has significantly 
reduced the Airport's paper inventory. 

Where possible, the Reprographics Department uses soy-based 
ink, a renewable resource that emits less volatile organic 
compounds than traditional inks. 



10. Hazardous Material and Waste Management 
and Remediation 




As described in this chapter, SFO's Hazardous Material and Waste Program is aimed 
at managing the generation, storage, and disposal of hazardous material and waste by 
both the Airport and by Airport tenants. SFO's environmental management efforts also 
include a material substitution program through which the Airport uses non-hazardous 
materials in lieu of hazardous materials where feasible, a program for the identification 
and abatement of asbestos and lead-based paint, and a program for reducing the use 
of pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides. The remediation aspect of the hazardous 
waste management program includes identification of any soil, groundwater, or surface 
water contamination at the Airport and characterization and abatement of such 
contaminated materials. 



One of the bullet traps 
at the Police Training 
Facility operated by the 
San Francisco Police 
Department at SFO. 
In 2005, the Airport 
constructed two state- 
of-the-art bullet traps to 
retrieve and recycle the 
spent lead bullets. 



Policy 

SFO shall strive to reduce the use of hazardous 
materials and promote their reduced usage with the 
airlines and tenants. SFO will seek to improve overall 
environmental quality through cleanup and restora- 
tion efforts focused on soil and groundwater contami- 
nation caused by accidental spills or leaks of fuel 
products or other chemicals. 

Goals 

► Strive to eliminate hazardous materials use and 
hazardous waste generation. 

► Strive to eliminate or minimize the release of any 
hazardous materials to the environment. 

► Maintain a record of all hazardous materials used 
for Airport operations, ensure that adequate 



training is provided for proper handling of such 
materials, and procure non-hazardous materials 
substitutes, when practicable. 

► Seek to prevent pest problems and to manage 
pests while minimizing the impact of any 
pesticides used on human health and the 

environment. 

Federal/State/Local Mandates 

In 1 965, to encourage environmentally sound 
methods for disposal of household, municipal, 
commercial, and industrial refuse, Congress passed 
the first federal law to require safeguards on these 
activities, the Solid Waste Disposal Act. Congress 
amended this law in 1976 by passing the Rp-^ourre 
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 



61 



Hazardous Material and Waste Management and Remediation 



As more information about the health and 
environmental impacts of waste disposal became 
available, Congress revised RCRA in 1980 and in 
1 984. The 1 984 amendments are referred to as the 
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments. RCRA 
is divided into sections called Subtitles. Subtitles C 
and D set forth a framework for the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency's (EPA's) comprehensive waste 
management program. 

EPA's Subtitle C program establishes a regulatory 
framework for managing hazardous waste from 
generation until ultimate disposal. EPA's Subtitle D 
program establishes a system for managing solid 
(primarily non-hazardous) waste, such as household 
waste. RCRA also regulates underground storage 
tanks (USTs) that store petroleum or certain chemical 
products under Subtitle I. Requirements exist for 
the design and operation of these tanks and the 
development of systems to prevent accidental spills. 
At the Airport, underground tanks are used mainly 
for storing petroleum products. California has 
adopted laws and regulations paralleling the federal 
RCRA legislation. 

Soil and Groundwater Cleanup 

The soil and groundwater cleanup program is 
carried out in compliance with the cleanup 
standards developed by the San Francisco Bay Area 
Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) 
under the authority of state and federaj laws dealing 
with hazardous material handling, removal, 
remediation and disposal as described above. 

Hazardous Materials Management 

Preparation and implementation of hazardous 
materials business plans, including the manage- 
ment of above-ground and underground chemical 
and petroleum storage tanks, fall under the 
jurisdiction of various counties by delegation from 
the State Legislature. The Airport has prepared and 



submitted hazardous materials business plans to 
the San Mateo County Department of Environmental 
Health for all underground and above-ground fuel 
storage tanks, and for handling of other hazardous 
materials used in routine operations. 

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 

The San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed an 
ordinance in October 1 996, resulting in a change to 
Chapter 39 of the Administrative Code, mandating 
that City Departments and contractual users of City 
Property adopt policies that promote non-chemical 
approaches to pest management and to reduce or 
eliminate the use of pesticides by following IPM 
guidelines. 

Where Are We Now? 

Various types of hazardous waste are generated at 
the SFO from ongoing operations and from asbestos 
abatement, soil remediation, and/or groundwater 
remediation projects, and are managed according 
to state and federal guidelines. 

What Have We Accomplished? 

Hazardous Waste Management 

Between 1 992 and 2006, the Airport and its tenants 
carried out an extensive program of site investigation, 
characterization, and remediation of contaminated 
soil and groundwater to protect human health and 
safety and to prevent the degradation of environmental 
resources in and around the Airport. Implementation 
of most of the soil and groundwater remediation 
program coincided with the implementation of the 
Airport's Master Plan program that culminated in the 
construction of the new International Terminal 
Building, the AirTrain, BART connection, new parking 
garages, and new roadways at the Airport. The 
environmental clean-up program included the 
removal and treatment or disposal of approximately 



62 



Hazardous Waste Materials Disposed or Recycled in 2005 


Material 


Quantity 


Solid Hazardous Waste (Recycled) 


31,279 pounds 


Liquid Hazardous Waste (Recycled) 


4,217 gallons 


Anti-freeze (Recycled) 


175 gallons 


Vehicle Batteries (Recycled) 


150 pieces 


Contaminated Soil ^^^^ 


4,955 tons 



500,000 tons of contaminated soil and more than 
20 million gallons of contaminated groundwater at 
a cost of more than $55 million. Work continues in 
areas of the Airport requiring additional monitoring, 
remediation, and/or investigation. 

In addition to remediation activities, the Airport has 
undertaken extensive installation of state-of-the-art 
jet fuel supply pipelines and hydrant fuel pits in the 
airfield. Old fuel pipelines that were suspected of 
leakage have been abandoned and in some terminals 
have been replaced with tanker truck deliveries. The 
Airport is also undertaking a program of gradual 
decommissioning of abandoned fuel pipelines. 
Recently, more than 18,000 feet of abandoned 
pipelines, with diameters ranging from 4 to 22 inches, 
were evacuated and then filled with cement slurry 
in a demolition project at Terminal 1 at a cost of 
more than $600,000. 

Hazardous Material Management 

All Airport departments using hazardous materials 
in the course of their routine activities are required 
to prepare a Hazardous Materials Business Plan for 
submittal to San Mateo County. The business plans 
include a detailed list of the type and quantities of 
hazardous materials used, method of storage, 
method of use, number and capacity of storage 
tanks, emergency response plan, record keeping 
procedure, and records of staff training sessions. 



San Mateo County staff perform periodic inspections 
of hazardous materials storage, record keeping, and 
handling operations at the Airport. 

Hazardous Waste Materials Disposal 

Hazardous substances generally consist of materials 
with chemical and physical properties that may pose 
a hazard to human health or the environment when 
improperly handled, stored, disposed, or otherwise 
managed. Discarded fluorescent light fixtures, light 
ballasts, and computer monitors contain hazardous 
materials and must be properly handled. These wastes 
are collected for recycling in a program managed 
by the City's Health Department. Used oil products 
and other petroleum wastes are generated in the 
Airport's Mechanical Shops, and paint residues and 
paint thinner wastes are generated in the Paint Shops. 
These products are recycled either by the Airport or 
by the Health Department. Hazardous building 
materials such as asbestos-containing materials and 
lead-based paint could be found in the older 
Airport buildings. These types of wastes could be 
generated during various construction activities and 
are disposed of in permitted landfills. Other 
hazardous wastes such as vehicle and general- 
purpose batteries are collected for recycling. 

Soil and Groundwater Remediation 

Jet fuel is stored in a number of above-ground tanlcs 
and is pumped through underground pipelines to 
the various terminals. Gasoline and diesel fuels are 
also stored at the Airport in above-ground and 
underground tanks, and are pumped to end users 
through underground pipes. Accidental releases, 
leaks, or spills of these hazardous materials could 
pose environmental and/or health and safety risks. 
In partnership with the tenants and the RWQCB. SFQ 
has established a rigorous program for manage- 
ment of contaminated soil and groundwater. 
Contaminated soil excavated during construction or 
maintenance activities is generally removed for 



63 



Hazardous Material and Waste Management and Remediation 





Containment trailer with 
controlled access and fire 
protection equipment safely 
stores hazardous materials. 



off-site disposal in permitted landfills. Contaminated 
groundwater pumped from construction excavations 
is generally treated at special purpose treatment 
units or at the Airport's Industrial Wastewater 
Treatment Plant. To-date, this program has achieved 
compliance with soil and groundwater clean up 
standards developed by the San Francisco Bay Area 
RWQCB throughout most of the Airport. 

Material Substitution Program 

The Airport is an active participant in the San 
[;rancisco Department of the Environment's Environ- 
mentally Preferred Purchasing Program. This program 
seeks to minimize the purchase of products 
containing hazardous ingredients by the City and 
County of San Francisco departments for custodial 
services, fleet maintenance, and facility mainteciance, 
in favor of alternate products that pose less risk to 
City employees and the public. 



This program follows the City-adopted Precautionary 
Principle, which uses the best available science to 
identify cost-effective measures that would prevent 
harm if a practice poses threats to human health or 
may cause serious environmental damage. The 
Airport promotes the use of non-hazardous 
alternatives to hazardous materials where possible. 
A program for the identification and abatement of 
asbestos-containing materials and lead-based paint, 
and a program for reducing the usage of pesticides, 
insecticides and herbicides have also been 
implemented. The cleaning products used by the 
Airport's custodial staff are free of volatile organic 
compounds (VOC). In addition, the floor finishing 
products used by the Airport's custodians contain 
low levels ofVOCs. 

Material Safety Data Sheets are reviewed to exclude 
harmful products before they are introduced. 



64 



Through the Injury and Illness Prevention Program, 
communication and training regarding hazardous 
chemicals, hazardous waste, and stormwater 
pollution prevention are provided annually to 
supervisors on all shifts. SFO continues to collabo- 
rate with employees to seek environmentally safe 
solutions as better technology and products 
become available. 



Bullet Recycling 

The San Francisco Police Department operates a 
Police Training Facility with a practice shooting 
range at SFO. In 2005, the Airport constructed two 
state-of-the-art bullet traps for the facility. In 2006, 
close to 7 tons of spent lead bullets were retrieved 
and recycled from the traps. 



Integrated Pest Management Program 

To comply with the City's IPM Ordinance, the Airport 
Commission adopted an IPM policy and directed 
the Airport Staff to prepare an IPM plan in 1997. SFO 
published its first IPM plan in April 1 998. With the use 
of alternative, less toxic methods, SFO reduced the 
use of pesticides and herbicides by approximately 
82% on a weight basis between 1 996 and 2001 . 
However, pesticide use is currently on the rise 
because SFO has significantly expanded the land- 
scaped areas in recent years. San Mateo County 
Mosquito Abatement District applies various mos- 
quito larvicides to marshland on Airport property 
under contract with SFO. In addition, various Airport 
tenants carry out pest control operations on their 
leaseholds on an as-needed basis. The needed 
increase in pesticide use, however, has been moder- 
ated by the IPM program. 



Spent bullets and cartridges 
embedded in the bullet 
traps made from recycled 
tires. In 2006, SFO 
retrieved and recycled 
7 tons of spent lead bullets. 




65 



1 1 . Green 



Buildings and Facilities 




SFO is committed to developing green buildings and to operating its facilities in ways 
that conserve energy, water resources, and other natural resources. From the award- 
winning International Terminal to an extensive recycling program and alternative 
fuels program, SFO focuses on best practices to improve and operate the Airport in a 
resource-efficient and sustainable manner. 

Green buildings and supporting infrastructure that minimize the use of resources, 
reduce harmful effects on the environment, and create healthier environments for 
people make both environmental and economic sense. Green buildings are facilities 
designed, constructed, renovated, and operated in an environmentally responsible 
and energy-efficient manner. The Airport's green building initiatives are described in 
this chapter. 



Policy 



Goals 



SFO's 2.5 million 
square-foot International 
Terminal Building was 
designed based on green 
building principles. 



Airport facilities, winere practicable, shall be 
designed, constructed, and rehabilitated to make 
use of sustainable materials and green building 
techniques, seeking compliance with Leadership 
in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED™) Silver 
certification. SFO shall incorporate sustainability 
and life cycle cost analysis into current and future 
planning, design, construction, operations, and 
maintenance of facilities. 



► Follow the U.S. Green Building Council's (USGBC) 
LEED™ sustainable design principles for all new 
and remodeled buildings and facilities. 

► Establish proven programs with baseline 
performance standards, from which operations 
can be tracked and monitored. 

Federal/State/Local Mandates 

Title 24, Part 6, of the California Code of 
Regulations 

The Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and 
Nonresidential Buildings were established in 1978 in 



67 



Green Buildings and Facilities 



response to a legislative mandate to reduce 
California's energy consumption. The standards 
are updated periodically to allow consideration 
and possible incorporation of new energy efficiency 
technologies and methods. California's building 
efficiency standards (along with those for energy 
efficient appliances) have saved more than $56 billion 
in electricity and natural gas costs statewide since 
1 978. It is estimated the standards will save an 
additional $23 billion by 201 3, The current standards 
are available at www.energy.ca.gov/title24. 

Resource Efficient Building Ordinance (REB) 

The City and County of San Francisco's REB Ordinance 
went into effect in July 1999, creating Chapter 7 of 
the City's Environment Code. The objective of this 
ordinance is to provide healthy buildings for 
employees and visitors, increase energy and water 
use efficiency, minimize building construction and 
operation costs, and reduce the negative environmental 
impacts of conventional construction, demolition, 
and operation of buildings. The REB Ordinance 
establishes a minimum environmental standard for 
municipal facilities in the following areas: 

► Water conservation, 

► Energy conservation, 

► Indoor air quality, 

► Storage of recyclables, and 

► Construction and demolition debris 
management. 

San Francisco Green Building Ordinance. 

Effective September 2004, the San Francisco Green 
Building Ordinance specified that construction 
projects greater than 1 5,000 square feet should 
achieve a minimum LEED™ rating of Silver. 



USGBC/LEED™ I^M 

SFO has endorsed the USGBC's LEED™ Green Building 
Rating System, which is a consensus-based national 
standard for developing high performance, sustain- 
able buildings. Members of the USGBC, representing 
all segments of the building industry, developed 
LEED™ and continue to contribute to its evolution. 

For more information, go to www.usgbc.org 

Where Are We Now? 

The Airport has tal<en major steps in implementing 
the resource efficient building requirements. All 
new buildings are specified to have low-flow 
restroom fixtures and automatic-shutoff valves to 
conserve water. Lighting improvements include 
replacement of existing fixtures with lamps that 
produce more light with less energy. All technical 
specifications for new and remodeled buildings 
include requirements for recycling construction 
waste and demolition debris. 

CNG Dispensing Pump Stations 

SFO's two CNG fueling stations offer 1 5 fast-fill 
refueling hoses supplying 95,000 gasoline gallons 
equivalent per month to commercial vans, hotel 
courtesy shuttles, taxicabs, and both Airport and 
off-Airport parking shuttles. 

Solar Power Panels 

SFO has installed 2,000 square feet of solar panels on 
the roof of the Jason Yuen Architectural/Engineering 
Building. These solar panels have a capacity to 
generate 20 kW of energy. The generated power is 
fed into the Airport's power grid. 



In conjunction with the San Francisco Public Utilities 
Commission, SFO has begun installing more than 
50,000 square feet of solar roofing panels on Terminal 3 
to produce clean energy. A utility inverter would 
convert the direct current generated by the panels 
to the alternating current used at the Airport, 
augmenting the Airport's power source. 

What Have We Accomplished? 

Recent projects at SFO have focused on utilizing 
the latest technologies and products available to 
create a more environmentally sensitive facility. 
SFO's new International Terminal is a model of 
energy efficient design and is exemplary in its use 
of sustainable products. 

International Terminal Building 

The 2.5 million square foot San Francisco International 
Terminal houses 24 aircraft gates, expanded ticket 
counter space, increased baggage handling and 
expanded U.S. customs facilities to expedite passenger 
traffic. SFO developed the International Terminal 
following the principles of LEED™. 

The International Terminal unique features include: 

Sustainable Products 

The interior of the International Terminal Building 
contains 21 ,000 square feet of Forest Stewardship 
Council (FSC) certified cherry wood paneling on the 
huge wall above the departure lobby. The wall is 
one of the world's largest installations of veneer 
from certified, well-managed forests. 

Native Plants 

Ground landscaping for the International Terminal 
Building is comprised of native plants and trees 
grown specifically in Bay Area nurseries for SFO. 



Energy Management and Control System 

The International Terminal Building's overall design 
is 30% more efficient than required under Federal 
law (Title 24 - Nonresidential Building Energy 
Standards). A computerized system monitors and 
adjusts energy usage in the International Terminal 
Building to ensure optimum energy efficiency. 

Energy Conservation 

Elements of the energy conservation system include: 

► High-Performance Glazing: insulated, laminated, 
ceramic-coated glass minimizes heat loss and 
maximizes daylight entry into the building. 

► Enhanced Daylight: the terminal features a roof 
design with ample skylights that significantly 
reduces the need for electric light sources. 

► Energy-Efficient Fixtures: 

• Plumbing fixtures are low-flow in compliance 
with California Title 24 energy standard 
requirements. Fixtures are sensor controlled to 
automatically dispense tempered water when 
needed and turn off when not used, thus 
saving water and heating energy, and 

• High-efficiency fluorescent lighting reduces 

energy consumption. 

► Efficient Entryways: revolving doors at west 
entrances provide an air lock, reducing heat loss. 

► Optimized Ventilation: displacement ventilators 
cool only the occupied strata of public space. 

► Outside Air Economizer: An air conditioning 
system that uses cooler outside air 60% of the 
time, thereby reducing power consumption at 
the central heating and cooling power plant, 
and the amount of energy used in the terminal. 



69 



Green Buildings and Facilities 

The interior space of 
the main hall in the 
International Terminal 
features an FSC-certifed 
cherry wood wall. 



► System Optimization: an Energy Management 
and Control System monitors and adjusts all systems 
to maintain optimum efficiency. Overall, the 
building's design is 30% more energy efficient 
than a typical building of its type. 

Variable Flow Chilled and Hot Water Systems 

Chilled and hot water distribution pumps are equipped 
with variable frequency drives to modulate the water 
output in proportion to building cooling and heating 
demands, only when the cooling load cannot be met 
by the outside air economizer control, thus realizing 
a savings in pumping energy. 

Pre-Conditioned Air System 

Cooling is provided for aircraft docked at the boarding 
gates thereby eliminating the need for the use of 
aircraft auxiliary power units (APU). 



400 Hz Ground Power System 

400 Hz power is provided to aircraft docked at the 
boarding gates. The combination of pre-conditioned 
air and ground power systems provides significant 
air quality benefits by eliminating the emissions that 
would result from the use of the aircraft's APUs. 



Forest Stewardship Council-Certified Wood Award 

In recognition of the Airport's large-scale public use of FSC-certified wood, the non-profit Certified Forest Products Council (CFPC) presented 
its first-ever "Certified Wood Award"to SFO and its architects Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Del Campo & Maru, and Michael Willis & Associates. 
The award read as follows: "We commend San Francisco International Airport and its architects for their leadership in specifying and 
purchasing wood from FSC-certified, well-managed forests," said David Ford, president of the Certified Forest Products Council, a non-profit 
organization committed to the conservation, protection, and restoration of the world's forests. "Through their choice of certified wood, the 
airport and its architects have sent a clear message that San Francisco knows how to support the conservation, protection, and restoration of 
the world's forests, which is exactly what the people of this progressive city want." 

The FSC was formed in 1 993 by an alliance of concerned businesses, environmentalists, labor and community groups, and scientists to set 
international standards for forest stewardship and to accredit legitimate forest certifiers worldwide. Certification is only awarded to forestry 
operations that pass a stringent, voluntary, independent audit by an accredited team of scientists and forestry professionals. The wood is 
tracked during the entire manufacturing process to ensure that it came from a certified forest. 




1:1 Op On Time 
'15-^ 2:40p On Time 

4:1 Op On Time 
12:00p 12:49p 
3:00p On Time 
3:1 5p On Timei 
12:30p iLj^^^^ic 
12:30p 
3248 2:45p On Tim« 

2:27p On Tim< 
201 1 2:05p Departe 
3244 2:40p On Tim 
2028 12:3009? Closed 




3r^On On Tim 



Appendix: SFO By the Numbers 









s 









Operations, Passengers, and Air Cargo Tonnage at SFO 





Operations 


Passengers 


Cargo 


1993 


423,404 


31,277,246 


607,105 


1994 


430,380 


32,792,126 


639,886 


1995 


436,907 


33,774,694 


696,318 


1996 


442,281 


36,694,498 


697,408 


1997 


447,117 


38,009,428 


743,328 


1998 


435,008 


38,410,896 


786,874 


1999 


431,434 


39,500,000 


842,000 


2000 


416,640 


40,300,000 


853,000 


2001 


353,104 


33,900,000 


634,000 


2002 


314,636 


30,800,000 


595,000 


2003 


298,360 


28,800,000 


574,000 


2004 


315,212 


32,200,000 


563,000 


2005 


313,158 


32,800,000 


591,000 




SFO Historical Electricity Consumption (kV 


Vh)* 








1990 1995 


2001-2002** 


2003 


2004 


2005 g 


265,241,990 272,703,823 


317,033,701 


331,916,000 


333,744,000 


325,849,000 



* Includes tenant consumption 

** 12 month fiscal yearfrom July 1,2001 to June 30, 2002 



2005 Airport Commission Energy Consumption 


Electricity 


13.5 million kWh/month 


Natural Gas 


225 thousand therms/month 


Gasoline 


14,900 gallons/month 


Diesel 


5,050 gallons/month 


Biodiesel 


1,208 gallons/month 


CNG 


95,000 gasoline gallons equivalent/month* 



* Includes commercial vehicles serving the Airport. Consumption of gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel reported 
in this table only includes Airport Commission use and on-Airport Shuttle Bus uses. 



SFO By the Numbers 



Prepared by: 
Melissa Capria, 
Climate Artion 
Coordinator, Dept. of 
Environment 

Source: 

2005 information based 
on data collected for CCSF 
California Climate Action 
Registry certification, 1990 
data is from the baseline 
inventory conducted for 
the SF Climate Action Plan. 

Note: 

Data contained here are 
estimates, differences in 
reporting for 1990 data and 
2005 data may affect results. 



Summary of SFO Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 1 990 and 2005 (calendar year) 




1990 




2005 


Electricity 


amount unit 


amount 


unit 


Airport Commission 


131,435,000' kWh 


161,467,000 


kWh 


Airport Commission COj 


5,013 Tons 


6,158 


Tons 


1 Total Tenant & Commission Usage 


265,241,990 MWh 


325,849,000 


kWh 


Total Tenant & Commission CO^ 


10,116 Tons 


12/428 


Tons 


Note: total usage include both Airport Commission and tenant electricity supplied by HHWP and is predominately hydropower.The emissions conversion 
faaor for HHWP in 2005 was 76.28 lbs. of CO,/MWh, the same factor was applied to 1990 electricity data in order to facilitate comparison. 


1 Airport Commission-specific 1990 elearicity usage was extrapolated from total Airport Commission and tenant electricity usage in 2005 by 
assuming the ratio of Airport Commission to Tenant electricity usage was the same in 1 990 as in 2005. 




Natural Gas 


amount unit 


amount 


unit 


Airport Commission Usage 


1,700,000 Therms 


2,725,748 


Therms 


Airport Commission CO^ 


9,918 Tons 


15,903 


Tons 


Total CO 


9,918 Tons 


15,903 


Tons 


Note: no data on tenant natural gas use available. For comparison purposes natural gas CO, emission factors from the California Climate Aaion Registry 
were applied to the 1 990 data (these factors vary slightly from those used in the SF Climate Artion Plan inventory). 




1990 




2005 ■■■■ 


Vehicle Fuel* 


amount unit 


amount 


unit 


General Fleet Diesel Usage 


93,175 Gallons 


52,897 


Gallons 


General Fleet Diesel CO^ 


946 Tons 


537 


Tons 


General Fleet Gasoline Usage 


166,583 Gallons 


147,170 


Gallons 


General Fleet Gasoline CO^ 


1,570 Tons 


1,387 


Tons 


General Fleet CNG Usage 


N/A 


11,691 


Gallons gasoline equivalent 


General Fleet CNG CO^ 




80 


Tons 


General Fleet Propane Usage 


4,129 Gallons 


N/A 




General Fleet Propane CO^ 


28 Tons 






jg Total General Fleet COj 


2,543 Tons 


2,004 


Tons 


SFO Shuttle CNG Usage 


N/A 


51,553 


Gallons gasoline equivalent 


SFO Shuttle CNG COj 




390 


Tons 


. SFO Shuttle Diesel Usage 


N/A 


134,459 


Gallons 


SFO Shuttle Diesel COj 




1,476 


Tons 


SFO Shuttle Gasoline Usage 


N/A 


1,157 


Gallons 


SFO Shuttle Gasoline CO, 




11 


Tons 


Total Shuttle COj 


N/A 


1,877 


Tons 


* fleet diesel figure includes 4,009 gallons of red dye diesel used fh non-fleet machinery. 






Not* for comparison purposes gasoline and diesel CO^ emission farters from California Climate Artion Registry were applied to the 1990 data (these 
fartors vary slightly from those used in the SF Climate Artion Plan inventory). 




1990 




2005 


Total Airport CO^ Emissions 


17,474 




25,942 




Estimated Historical Annual Stationary Source Air Pollutant Emissions at SFO (Tons per Year) 



1 


TOG 


ROG 


CO 


NOx 


SOx 


^^^^^^^ 

PM 




2003 


3 


1.8 


10.7 


33.6 


0.9 


1.4 


1.3 


2004 


2.4 


1.5 


7.4 


27.8 


0.4 


0.7 


0.7 


2005 


2.3 


1.5 


6.7 


23.8 


0.4 


0.8 


0.8 



TOG Toxic Organic Gases SOx Sulfur Oxide 

ROG Reactive Organic Gases PM Particulate Matter 

CO Carbon Monoxide PM,j, Particulate Matter less than 10 microns in diameter, 

NOx Nitrous Oxide which are the greatest concern to public health. 



Source: California Air Resources Board 















Annual Water Consumption at SFO 




Average Daily Wastewater Flows at SFO (2006) 


Millions of Gallons 




Monthly Daily Average Flows (MGD) 


Sanitary (W.Q.) 


Industrial (I.W.) 


TOTAL 


2002 491 




January 


0.63 


0.96 


1.59 


2003 470 




February 


0.58 


0.68 


1.26 


2004 533 




March 


0.69 


0.80 


1.49 


2005 479 




April 


0.68 


0.79 


1.47 






May 


0.69 


0.59 


1.28 


Total SFO Water Use per Passenger 




June 


0.70 


0.55 


1.25 


Gallons per Passenger 




July 


0.67 


0.53 


1.20 


2002 15.9 




August 


0.66 


0.47 


1.13 


2003 16.3 




September 


0.60 


0.56 


1.16 


2004 16.6 




October 


0.60 


0.46 


1.06 


2005 14.6 


November 


0.61 


0.53 


1.14 




December 


0.62 


0.67 


1.29 




Average Daily Flow (MGD) 


0.64 


0.63 


1.28 




Total Annual Flow (MG) jmilL 


235 


231 


466 



MGD Million Gallons per Day 



A-4 



SFO By the Numbers 



Solid Waste Recycling (2002-2006) ■ 


Recycled Construction and Demolition Waste 


Solid Waste (in tons) 


2002 


2004 


2005 


2006 


2004 


2005 


2006 1 


Metal, glass, and plastic 


440 


480 


595 


609 


Asphalt 67,800 tons 


37,500 tons 


56,552 tons 


Paper 


1,826 


1,890 


2,437 


2,612 


Other C&D 50 tons metal 


780 cy metal 


1,020 cy metal 


Cardboard 


1,103 


1,013 


1,540 


1,713 


17,500 tons pec 


390 cy wood 


930 cywood 


Wood 


89 


108 


126 


107 


33,775 tons soil 


Food 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


18 


cy cubic yards 






Total Recycled 


3,459 


3,490 


4,700 


5,059 


pec Portland cement concrete 






Total Refuse 


3,336 


3,356 


4,301 


4,335 








Total Waste 


6,794 


6,846 


9,000 


9,394 








' % Diverted From Landfill 


51 


51 


52 


54 









Hazardous Waste Materials Quantities Generated at SFO in 2005 1 


Hazardous Waste Materials Disposed or Recycled in 2005 


Waste Type 


Annual Quantity 


Material 


Quantity Recycled 


Paint and Solvents 


130 gallons 


Solid Hazardous Waste (Recycled) 


31,279 lbs 


Transite Pipe and Asbestos Containing Materials 


540 lbs 


Liquid Hazardous Waste (Recycled) 


4,217 gallons 


Waste Oil 


3,920 gallons 


Contaminated Soil 


4,955 tons 


High Intensity Discharge Lamps 


780 lbs 


Anti-freeze (Recycled) 


175 gallons 


Fluorescent Lamp Bulbs 


18,109 lbs 


Vehicle Batteries (Recycled) 


150 pieces 


PCB-Containing Fluorescent Light Ballasts 


6,990 lbs 






Cathode- Ray Tube Computer Monitors 


2,550 lbs 






Alkaline Batteries 


1,350 lbs 






Lead Acid Batteries 


635 lbs 






Mace and Pepper Sprays 


95 lbs 


■ 




Grease 


230 lbs 






Naphthalene and Mineral Spirits 


165 gallons 






Miscellaneous Cleaner and Floor Wax 


2 gallons 






Antifreeze 


175 gallons 


• 




Tires 


1,164 pieces 






Contarrsiriated Soil 


4,955 tons 







Contact Information: 

Sam Mehta, Environmental Services Manager 

San Francisco International Airport 

710 N. McDonnell Road 

P.O. Box 8097 

San Francisco, CA 94128 

650.821.7841 FAX 650.821.5383 

email: Sam.Mehta@flysfo.com 



NEW LEAF-PAPER* 

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS STATEMENT of using post-consumer waste fiber vs. virgin fiber 

San Francisco International Airport saved the following resources by using New Leaf Primavera Gloss, manufac- 
tured with electricity offset by Creen-e® certified renewable energy certificates. 8o% recycled fiber and 40% post- 
consumer waste, and processed chlorine free. 



trees 


water 


energy 


solid waste 


greenhouse gases 


15 


9,367 


11 


752 


1,956 


fully grown 


gallons 


million Btu 


pounds 


pounds 



Calculations based on research by Environmental Defense and other memuers of the Paper Task Force. 

©2007 New Leaf Paper www.ntwleafpaper.com 



_/ NEW LEAF PAPER